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Technical Paper

Simulating Performance of a Parallel Flow Condenser Using Hydrocarbons as the Working Fluids

2001-05-14
2001-01-1744
Performance of a parallel flow condenser is simulated by using hydrocarbons as the alternative refrigerants. The performance of the condenser is simulated with Propane (R-290), Isobutane (R-600a), and 50/50 mixture (by weight) of Propane and Isobutane. The performance is compared to a system with R-134a as the working fluid. For a given condenser heat rejection capacity, the refrigerant mass flow rates for hydrocarbon refrigerants are significantly lower than R-134a. However, the heat transfer coefficients are comparable in magnitudes to the base case (R-134a) which results in heat transfer rates that are very close to that of the base case. Hence, the simulated rate of heat transfer for hydrocarbon refrigerants is very close (within ±3%) to that of R-134a system. The pressure drop for hydrocarbon refrigerants are significantly lower in comparison to R-134a. The simulated thermal performance has been compared with the experimental test data obtained from the system bench.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Heat Exchangers for Automotive Applications - Part I: Condensers

1997-02-24
970829
A computer program has been developed to optimize the performance of finned tube condensers. The developed program is used to predict the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of finned tube condensers. The model is based on a steady-state finite difference model. The correlations for predicting the heat transfer and pressure drop are used from the literature. Experimental test data is used to validate the developed model for a finned tube condenser with R-134a as the working fluid. The simulated performance for the condenser heat transfer is within ±7%; and refrigerant pressure drop is within 10% of the experimental data. The simulated data for the condenser coil shows that 16% of the total heat transfer area is occupied by single-phase vapor flow where the superheated vapor are cooled to the saturated conditions; 72% by condensation; and the remaining 12% is controlled by the single-phase liquid flow which results in subcooling.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Heat Exchangers for Automotive Applications - Part II: Evaporators

1997-02-24
970830
A computer program has been developed to optimize the performance of finned tube evaporators. The developed program is used to predict the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of finned tube evaporators. The model is based on a steady-state finite difference model. The correlations for predicting the heat transfer and pressure drop are used from the literature. Experimental data is used to validate the developed model for a finned tube evaporator with R-12 as the working fluid. The simulated performance for heat transfer rate is within ±8 %; and refrigerant pressure drop is within ±10 % of the experimental data. The simulated data shows that 66 % of the heat transfer area is occupied by flow boiling; 23 % by the dryout region; and remaining 11 % is controlled by single-phase vapor flow. Work is continuing on predicting the performance of serpentine and laminate type evaporators with R-134a as the working fluid.
Technical Paper

Two-Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients and Pressure Gradients for HFO-1234yf

2012-04-16
2012-01-1047
Tests were conducted with a laminate evaporator for an automotive application. The tests were conducted with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid on an AC system bench. A laminate evaporator from MY 2008 medium-sized sedan was used for this investigation. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were experimentally determined for HFO-1234yf for this laminate evaporator. Heat transfer coefficients have also been computed from standard correlations available from the open literature. The experimentally obtained heat transfer coefficients are within ±20% of the simulated data based on standard correlation (Kandlikar, 1990). Pressure gradients for these two fluids calculated from Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) correlation shows that the pressure gradients for HFO-1234yf are lower by 15%. Detailed results have been presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Predicting and Optimizing Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Parallel Flow Condensers

1999-03-01
1999-01-0236
The performance of a parallel flow condenser of a domestic vehicle was simulated by using the computer program developed earlier by the author (Mathur, 1997). None of the original correlations for predicting heat transfer, pressure drop, void fraction were changed. The working fluid used in this investigation was R-134a. The simulated performance was compared with the experimentally obtained data from the calorimeter tests. The simulated thermal and hydrodynamic performance was within ±6% of the experimental data. Detailed performance data has been presented in this paper. The performance of the same condenser was optimized by varying the number of tubes in a given pass by fixing all other variables, e.g., tube and fin pitch; tube geometry; height, length, and depth of the condenser; number of passes; and location of the inlet and outlet connections.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Thermal and Hydrodynamic Performance of Laminate Evaporators

2000-03-06
2000-01-0573
The thermal and hydrodynamic performance of laminate (plate type) evaporators is simulated by using the computer program developed earlier by the author (Mathur, 1997). The correlations for predicting heat transfer, pressure drop, void fraction are used from the literature. The working fluid used in this investigation is R-134a. The simulated performance is compared with the experimentally obtained data from the calorimeter tests. The simulated thermal and hydrodynamic performance is within ″9% of the experimental data. Detailed performance data has been presented in this paper.
Journal Article

Experimental Measurements of Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients for Refrigerant HFO-1234yf

2013-04-08
2013-01-1493
Experimental tests were conducted on a parallel flow condenser with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid on an AC system bench to determine average and local heat transfer coefficients during condensation of HFO-1234yf for mass flow rates that are typically encountered from idle to highway speeds (800 to 3000 rpms). A condenser from MY 2008 medium-sized sedan was used for this investigation. All original OEM parts were used with the alternate refrigerant. Same TXV set-point was used with HFO-1234yf. The magnitude of the measured heat transfer coefficient for condensation was found to be 8~12% lower in comparison to HFC-134a. The magnitudes of the pressure drop during condensation were of the same magnitude as HFC-134a system. The information from this investigation can be used to in the design of condensers for mobile air conditioning systems with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Performance of a Laminate Evaporator with HFO-1234yf as the Working Fluid

2011-04-12
2011-01-1170
Tests were conducted with a laminate evaporator for an automotive application. The tests were conducted with HFO-1234yf as the working fluid on an AC system bench. A laminate evaporator from MY 2008 medium sized sedan was used for this investigation. Tests were first conducted with R-134a and were then repeated by maintaining each test condition by changing the working fluid from R-134a to HFO-1234yf. Charge determination tests were also conducted with the new refrigerant. The refrigerant was used as “drop-in” refrigerant in the existing system. All original OEM parts were used with the alternate refrigerant. Same TXV set-point and lubricant type and quantity was used with HFO-1234yf. The new refrigerant has advantages due to the refrigerant thermodynamic properties that helps reduce the pressure ratio. Detailed test results have been presented in this paper.
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