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Technical Paper

The Collins Scotch Yoke Engine as a Compact Alternative - A Theoretical Comparison of Features of Scotch Yoke and Conventional Engines

1995-02-01
950091
The application of a Scotch Yoke crank mechanism to a reciprocating internal combustion engine reduces the engine's size and weight and, with the sinusoidal piston motion it provides, it changes the combustion parameters and simplifies the requirements for perfect balancing of the engine. This paper makes a theoretical comparison between conventional and Scotch Yoke engines with dimensional similarity of individual components where possible such as bore and stroke, and justifiable differences appropriate to each engine design such as cylinder bore off-set, piston height, connecting rod length etc. Included are variations related to differences in piston motion (true sinusoidal versus conventional) such as exhaust emissions and balancing requirements.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of an S.I. Engine with a λ=5 Capability

1995-02-01
950689
HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) is an advanced combustion initiation system for otherwise standard S.I engines. It utilises the fluid mechanics of a turbulent, chemically active jet, combined with the reliability of spark igniting rich hydrogen mixtures. The result is an extremely robust ignition system, capable of developing power from an engine charged with air-fuel mixtures as lean as λ = 5. Experiments have been performed using a single cylinder engine operating on gasoline in the speed range of 600-1800 r/min. Data are presented in the form of maps which describe fuel efficiency, combustion stability and emissions with respect to load, speed, air-fuel ratio and throttle. The results are incorporated into a model of a known engine and vehicle and this is used to estimate performance over the Federal drive-cycle.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Air Fuel Ratio Optimisation of a Lean Burn SI Engine

1996-05-01
961156
An adaptive air fuel ratio (AFR) control system has been implemented on a modern high performance fuel injected four cylinder engine. A pressure transducer in the combustion chamber is used to measure the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) for efficiency and cyclic variability feedback. The controller tunes the relative AFR, λ, in the range λ = 1 to λ = 1.5, to maximise the thermal efficiency in real time. The system adaptively accounts for changes in operating conditions such as ambient temperatures and user demands. The IMEP feedback allows the closed loop control system to update every few revolutions with short tune in times in the order of seconds. Open and closed loop test results are presented, demonstrating the incremental efficiency gains over fixed or mapped AFR control. The system continually adjusts the fuelling for maximum efficiency given its constraints and provides a basis for optimisation of future lean burn technologies.
Technical Paper

A New Look at Oxygen Enrichment 1) The Diesel Engine

1990-02-01
900344
New concepts in oxygen enrichment of the inlet air have been examined in tests on two direct injection diesel engines, showing: significant reduction in particulate emissions (nearly 80% at full load), increased thermal efficiency if injection timing control is employed, substantial reductions in exhaust smoke under most conditions, ability to burn inferior quality fuels which is economically very attractive and achivement of turbo-charged levels of output with consequential benefits of increased power/mass and improved thermal efficiency. The replacement of an engine's turbocharger and intercooling system with a smaller turbocharger and polymeric membrane elements to supply the oxygen enriched stream should allow improved transient response. NOx emission remain a problem and can only be reduced to normally aspirated engine levels at some efficiency penalty.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of a Turbocharged, Jet Ignited, Cryogenic, Port Injected, Hydrogen Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1425
Favorable and unfavorable properties of hydrogen as a combustion engine fuel have been accommodated in a design of a fuel efficient and clean engine providing similar to gasoline maximum torque and power. The advanced H2ICE being developed is a turbocharged engine fitted with cryogenic port hydrogen fuel injection and the hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). The combustion chamber is designed to produce a high compression ratio and therefore high thermal efficiency. A waste gated turbocharger provides pressure boosting for an increased power density running ultra lean for SULEV operation without after treatment. Thanks to the combustion properties of hydrogen further enhanced by the HAJI system, the engine load is mainly controlled throttle-less decreasing the fuel-to-air equivalence ratio from ultra lean ϕ=0.43 to ultra-ultra lean ϕ=0.18. The computational model developed for addressing the major design issues and the predicted engine performance and efficiency maps are included.
Technical Paper

The Performance and Emissions of the Turbocharged Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (TC-ALSI) Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1235
This paper extends previous development of the ALSI concept, by investigating the performance delivered with a turbocharged version of this engine. The research is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using hydrogen, LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used extensively for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is the wide ranging evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean limit mixture shift of more than one unit of lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The paper describes the capability of the ultra lean burn spark ignition engine with the mild boost needed provided by a Honeywell turbocharger.
Technical Paper

The Lean Burn Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Flexi Gas Fuel LPG/CNG Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2790
This paper explores through engine simulations the use of LPG and CNG gas fuels in a 1.5 liter Spark Ignition (SI) four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder equipped with a novel mixture preparation and ignition system comprising centrally located Direct Injection (DI) injector and Jet Ignition (JI) nozzles. With DI technology, the fuel may be introduced within the cylinder after completion of the valve events. DI of fuel reduces the embedded air displacement effects of gaseous fuels and lowers the charge temperature. DI also allows lean stratified bulk combustion with enhanced rate of combustion and reduced heat transfer to the cylinder walls creating a bulk lean stratified mixture.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-0929
In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0932
This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Modeling Alternative Prechamber Fuels in Jet Assisted Ignition of Gasoline and LPG

2009-04-20
2009-01-0721
Gas assisted jet ignition is a prechamber combustion initiation system for conventional spark ignition engines. With the system, a chemically active turbulent jet is used to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures enabling reliable combustion over a much broader range of air-fuel ratios. The extended range is due to the distributed ignition source provided by the jet, which can overcome the problems of poorly mixed main chamber charges and slower burning fuels. In addition, the ability to reliably ignite lean mixtures improves the thermal efficiency and enables ultra low emission levels. Experiments together with flame propagation modeling completed using STAR-CD with CHEMKIN Kinetics were done in order to examine the effects of numerous prechamber fuels on the ignition of the main fuel, which consisted of either liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or gasoline.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Geometric Effects of Turbulence on Cyclic Variability

2010-04-12
2010-01-0540
Cyclic variability in spark ignition engine combustion, especially at high dilution through lean burn or high EGR rates, places limits on in-cylinder NOx reduction and thermal efficiency. Flame wrinkling, resulting from interactions with turbulence, is a potential source of cyclic variations in turbulence. Previous studies have shown that flame kernels are subject to significant distortions when they are smaller than the integral length scale of turbulence. With the assumption that flame development is not subject to noticeable variations, after it reaches the integral length scale, the authors have shown that turbulent-burning-caused combustion variability can be successfully modeled as a function of laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity. This paper explores the contributions of flame wrinkling to flame kernel growth variation. As the kernel growth problem is complex, this study only explores one of the many aspects of the problem.
Technical Paper

Gas Assisted Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean LPG in a Spark Ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0506
Gas assisted jet ignition is an advanced prechamber ignition process that allows ignition of ultra lean mixtures in an otherwise standard spark ignition engine. The results presented in this paper indicate that in a gas assisted jet ignition system fuelled with LPG in both the main chamber and prechamber, the lean limit can be extended to between λ = 2-2.35, depending on the load and speed. Although the fuel combinations that employ H2 as the prechamber fuel can extend the lean limit furthest (λ = 2.5-2.6), the extension enabled by the LPG-LPG prechamber-main chamber combination provides lower NOx emission levels at similar λ. In addition, when LPG is employed in place of gasoline as the main chamber fuel, hydrocarbon emissions are significantly reduced, however with a slight penalty in indicated mean effective pressure due to the gaseous state of the LPG.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development and Analysis of a Carbureted and PFI Normally Aspirated Small Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0095
This paper focuses on the combustion system development and combustion analysis results for a normally aspirated 0.43-liter small engine. The inline two-cylinder engine used in experiments has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated modes, using 98-RON pump gasoline. Test modes were defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection fuel delivery systems. The results from this paper provide some insight into the combustion effects for small cylinder normally aspirated spark ignition engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as oil prices fluctuate and CO₂ emissions begin to be regulated. Small engine combustion is explored with a number of parametric studies, including a range of manifold absolute pressures up to wide open throttle, engine speeds exceeding 10,000 rev/min and compression ratios ranging from 9 to 13.
Technical Paper

Top Land Crevice and Piston Deflection Effects on Combustion in a High Speed Rotary Valve Engine

2008-12-02
2008-01-3005
The Bishop Rotary Valve (BRV) has the opportunity for greater breathing capacity than conventional poppet valve engines. However the combustion chamber shape is different from conventional engine with no opportunity for a central spark plug. This paper reports the development of a combustion analysis and design model using KIVA-3V code to locate the ignition centers and to perform sensitivity analysis to several design variables. Central to the use of the model was the tuning of the laminar Arrhenius model constants to match the experimental pressure data over the speed range 13000-20000 rpm. Piston ring crevices lands and valve crevices is shown to be an important development area and connecting rod piston stretch has also been accommodated in the modeling. For the proposed comparison, a conventional 4 valve per cylinder poppet valve engine of nearly equal IMEP has been simulated with GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-2957
The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pfi and Di Superbike Engines

2008-12-02
2008-01-2943
Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) is a technique that was successful in motor sports several decades ago and is now relatively popular in passenger car applications only. DI gasoline fuel injectors have been recently improved considerably, with much higher fuel flow rates and much finer atomization enabled by the advances in fuel pressure and needle actuation. These improved injector performance and the general interest in reducing fuel consumption also in motor sports have made this option interesting again. This paper compares Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and DI of gasoline fuel in a high performance, four cylinder spark ignition engine for super bike racing. Computations are performed with a code for gas exchange, heat transfer and combustion, simulating turbulent combustion and knock.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Performance of a Natural Gas Fuelled, Port Injected, Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0822
This paper presents a study of the performance of a lean burn, natural gas-fuelled, naturally aspirated, spark ignition engine for an E class vehicle. Engine performance and exhaust emissions (NO, CO, and UHC) data are first discussed. An energy balance of the engine operating at different loads and air-fuel ratios is then presented, and used to explain why engine efficiency varies with air-fuel ratio. Finally, the hot start drive cycle CO2e (CO2 equivalent) emissions are estimated for a vehicle with this engine. This shows a potential for significant reduction in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent gasoline-fuelled vehicle.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Port Fuel Injected, Spark Ignition Engine Optimised for Hydrogen Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0654
This paper presents a study of the performance of a 6-cylinder, spark-ignited, port-fuel-injected, production engine modified for hydrogen fueling. The engine modifications include turbo-charging, multiple fuel injectors per port and charge-dilution control techniques. Pumping losses are reduced through ultra-lean burn and throttle-less operation alongside high charge dilution ratio control achieved by twin independent variable cam timing without external EGR. Lean-burn combustion, engine-out emissions and brake thermal efficiency results are examined in detail. In particular, low NO emissions and brake thermal efficiencies near 38% are observed experimentally at the same operating conditions. The former is explained in terms of the usual thermal NOx pathway. Usage of throttle position, injection timings and cam timings for avoiding preignition and knock over the entire engine map are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Highly Turbocharging a Restricted, Odd Fire, Two Cylinder Small Engine - Design, Lubrication, Tuning and Control

2006-12-05
2006-01-3637
This paper describes the mechanical component design, lubrication, tuning and control aspects of a restricted, odd fire, highly turbocharged (TC) engine for Formula SAE competition. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder inline arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. A detailed theoretical analysis was completed to determine engine specifications and operating conditions. Results from the analysis indicated a new engine design was necessary to sustain highly TC operation. Dry sump lubrication was implemented after initial oil surge problems were found with the wet sump system during vehicle testing. The design and development of the system is outlined, together with brake performance effects for the varying systems.
Technical Paper

Optimization of All SI Engine Combustion Control and Related Events for Efficiency

2006-04-03
2006-01-0045
There are two parts to achieving the optimization reported here. The development of an engine simulation model and an optimization algorithm. The engine performance is evaluated using a quasi-dimensional engine combustion model with sub models to incorporate friction, heat losses and abnormal combustion, that is knocking. After extensive search and development a new Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO), has been developed. Optimization includes, for the first time, the search of discontinuous design variables. The input variables considered for this investigation are manifold air pressure, air-fuel ratio, spark timing, compression ratio, valve timing events including valve open duration, maximum valve lift and engine speed. This enables the identification of the maximum thermal efficiency at a given power output at any engine operating speed.
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