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Technical Paper

Performance of a Port Fuel Injected, Spark Ignition Engine Optimised for Hydrogen Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0654
This paper presents a study of the performance of a 6-cylinder, spark-ignited, port-fuel-injected, production engine modified for hydrogen fueling. The engine modifications include turbo-charging, multiple fuel injectors per port and charge-dilution control techniques. Pumping losses are reduced through ultra-lean burn and throttle-less operation alongside high charge dilution ratio control achieved by twin independent variable cam timing without external EGR. Lean-burn combustion, engine-out emissions and brake thermal efficiency results are examined in detail. In particular, low NO emissions and brake thermal efficiencies near 38% are observed experimentally at the same operating conditions. The former is explained in terms of the usual thermal NOx pathway. Usage of throttle position, injection timings and cam timings for avoiding preignition and knock over the entire engine map are also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility of Downsizing a 1.25 Liter Normally Aspirated Engine to a 0.43 Liter Highly Turbocharged Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0083
In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

The Lean Limit and Emissions at Near-Idle for a Gasoline HAJI System with Alternative Pre-Chamber Fuels

2007-09-16
2007-24-0120
Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for otherwise standard gasoline fueled spark ignition engines that involves the use of a chemically active turbulent jet to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures. HAJI burns the lean main charge rapidly and with almost no combustion variability, which allows for low hydrocarbon emissions and almost zero NOx, due to lower peak temperatures. This paper focuses on the effects of different pre-chamber fuels on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder, HAJI equipped, CFR engine under a worst case, light load condition. Results indicate that the choice of pre-chamber fuel affects the main chamber lean limit but that emissions are not largely affected before this lean limit is reached. The lean limit was extended furthest, to λ = 2.5 with hydrogen, followed by λ = 2.35 with LPG, λ = 2.25 with CNG and λ = 2.15 with carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Hot and Cool EGR with Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition

2007-08-05
2007-01-3627
Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for standard gasoline fueled engines that involves the use of a chemically active turbulent jet to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures. HAJI burns the lean main charge rapidly and with almost no combustion variability, which allows for low hydrocarbon emissions and almost zero NOx, due to lower peak temperatures. This paper focuses on the effects of internal and cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion parameters, emissions and thermal efficiency in a single cylinder HAJI equipped CFR engine. Experimental results indicate that replacing air with EGR in λ=2 mixtures can shift the lean limit at which NOx is negligible to mixtures as rich as λ=1.3, without a large penalty in hydrocarbon emissions and thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Effects on Performance, Efficiency, Emissions and Combustion in a Carbureted and PFI Small Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3623
This paper compares the performance, efficiency, emissions and combustion parameters of a prototype two cylinder 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) modes with compression ratio (CR) variations. Experiments were completed using 98-RON pump gasoline with modes defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection (PFI). The results from this paper provide some insight into the CR effects for small NA spark ignition (SI) engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as engine downsizing grows in popularity due to rising oil prices and recent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission regulations. Results are displayed in the engine speed, manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and CR domains, with engine speeds exceeding 10000 rev/min and CRs ranging from 9 to 13. Combustion analysis is also included, allowing mass fraction burn (MFB) comparison.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

2007-08-05
2007-01-3552
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Development of a 430cc Constant Power Engine for FSAE Competition

2006-04-03
2006-01-0745
This paper describes the design and development of an engine with constant power for SAE's student Formula race-car competition, allowing the avoidance of gear shifting for much of the Autocross event. To achieve constant power for over 50% of the speed range, turbocharging was adopted with a boost pressure ratio of 2.8 at mid-range speeds and applied to an engine capacity of 430 cc. This engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder in-line arrangement with double overhead camshafts. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. The capacity was selected to minimise frictional losses and thus increase delivered power along with dry sump lubrication and a three speed gear box. The engine manifolds and plenums were designed using a CAE application and proved to be well suited to the task resulting in excellent agreement between predicted and actual performance.
Technical Paper

Highly Turbocharging a Restricted, Odd Fire, Two Cylinder Small Engine - Design, Lubrication, Tuning and Control

2006-12-05
2006-01-3637
This paper describes the mechanical component design, lubrication, tuning and control aspects of a restricted, odd fire, highly turbocharged (TC) engine for Formula SAE competition. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a twin cylinder inline arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. A detailed theoretical analysis was completed to determine engine specifications and operating conditions. Results from the analysis indicated a new engine design was necessary to sustain highly TC operation. Dry sump lubrication was implemented after initial oil surge problems were found with the wet sump system during vehicle testing. The design and development of the system is outlined, together with brake performance effects for the varying systems.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of a Turbocharged, Jet Ignited, Cryogenic, Port Injected, Hydrogen Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1425
Favorable and unfavorable properties of hydrogen as a combustion engine fuel have been accommodated in a design of a fuel efficient and clean engine providing similar to gasoline maximum torque and power. The advanced H2ICE being developed is a turbocharged engine fitted with cryogenic port hydrogen fuel injection and the hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). The combustion chamber is designed to produce a high compression ratio and therefore high thermal efficiency. A waste gated turbocharger provides pressure boosting for an increased power density running ultra lean for SULEV operation without after treatment. Thanks to the combustion properties of hydrogen further enhanced by the HAJI system, the engine load is mainly controlled throttle-less decreasing the fuel-to-air equivalence ratio from ultra lean ϕ=0.43 to ultra-ultra lean ϕ=0.18. The computational model developed for addressing the major design issues and the predicted engine performance and efficiency maps are included.
Technical Paper

The Lean Burn Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Flexi Gas Fuel LPG/CNG Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2790
This paper explores through engine simulations the use of LPG and CNG gas fuels in a 1.5 liter Spark Ignition (SI) four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder equipped with a novel mixture preparation and ignition system comprising centrally located Direct Injection (DI) injector and Jet Ignition (JI) nozzles. With DI technology, the fuel may be introduced within the cylinder after completion of the valve events. DI of fuel reduces the embedded air displacement effects of gaseous fuels and lowers the charge temperature. DI also allows lean stratified bulk combustion with enhanced rate of combustion and reduced heat transfer to the cylinder walls creating a bulk lean stratified mixture.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Performance and Limitations of a Downsized Formula SAE Engine in Normally Aspirated, Supercharged and Turbocharged Modes

2006-11-13
2006-32-0072
This paper compares the performance of a small two cylinder, 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) and forced induction modes on 98-RON pump gasoline. These modes are defined by variations in the induction system and associated compression ratio (CR) alterations needed to avoid knock and maximize volumetric efficiency (ηVOL). These modes included: (A) NA with carburetion (B) NA with port fuel injection (PFI) (C) Mildly Supercharged (SC) with PFI (D) Highly Turbocharged (TC) with PFI The results have significant relevance in defining the limitations for small downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, with power increases needed via intake boosting to compensate for the reduced swept volume. Performance is compared in the varying modes with comparisons of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), brake power, ηVOL, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (ηTH).
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Gasketless Cylinder Head / Block Interface for an Open Deck, Multi Cylinder, Highly Turbocharged Small Engine

2006-11-13
2006-32-0036
This paper describes the design and development of a gasketless interface, which was used successfully to couple an aluminium cylinder head to an open deck design cylinder block. The cylinder block was manufactured from aluminium, featuring shrink fit dry cast iron liners. Extensive CAE modelling was employed to implement the gasketless interface and thus avoid using a conventional metal or fiber based cylinder head gasket. The engine was specifically designed and configured for the purpose, being a 430 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC) twin cylinder in-line arrangement with double overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Most of the engine components were specially cast or machined from billets. The new design removed the conventional head gasket and relied on the correct amount of face pressure generated by interference between the cylinder head and block to seal the interface. This had advantages in improving the structural integrity of the weak open deck design.
Technical Paper

Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-2957
The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
Technical Paper

Top Land Crevice and Piston Deflection Effects on Combustion in a High Speed Rotary Valve Engine

2008-12-02
2008-01-3005
The Bishop Rotary Valve (BRV) has the opportunity for greater breathing capacity than conventional poppet valve engines. However the combustion chamber shape is different from conventional engine with no opportunity for a central spark plug. This paper reports the development of a combustion analysis and design model using KIVA-3V code to locate the ignition centers and to perform sensitivity analysis to several design variables. Central to the use of the model was the tuning of the laminar Arrhenius model constants to match the experimental pressure data over the speed range 13000-20000 rpm. Piston ring crevices lands and valve crevices is shown to be an important development area and connecting rod piston stretch has also been accommodated in the modeling. For the proposed comparison, a conventional 4 valve per cylinder poppet valve engine of nearly equal IMEP has been simulated with GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

Highly Turbocharging a Flow Restricted Two Cylinder Small Engine - Turbocharger Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-1562
This paper describes the turbocharger development of a restricted 430 cm3 odd firing two cylinder engine. The downsized test engine used for development was specifically designed and configured for Formula SAE, SAE's student Formula race-car competition. A well recognised problem in turbocharging Formula SAE engines arises from the rules, which dictate that the throttle and air intake restrictor must be on the suction side of the compressor. As a consequence of upstream throttling, oil from the compressor side seal assembly is drawn into the inlet manifold. The development process used to solve the oil consumption issue for a Garrett GT-12 turbocharger is outlined, together with cooling and control issues. The development methodology used to achieve high pressure ratio turbocharging is discussed, along with exhaust manifold development and operating limitations. This includes experimental and modeling results for both pulse and constant pressure type turbocharging.
Technical Paper

Spatial and Temporal Temperature Distributions in a Spark Ignition Engine Piston at WOT

2007-04-16
2007-01-1436
Two coupled finite element analysis (FEA) programs were written to determine the transient and steady state temperature distribution in a spark ignition engine piston. The programs estimated the temperatures at each crank angle degree (CAD) through warm-up to thermal steady state. A commercial FEA code was used to combine the steady state temperature distribution with the mechanical loads to find the stress response at each CAD for one complete cycle. The first FEA program was a very fast and robust non-linear thermal code to estimate spatial and time resolved heat flux from the combustion chamber to the aluminum alloy piston crown. This model applied the energy conservation equation to the near wall gas and includes the effects of turbulence, a propagating heat source, and a quench layer allowing estimates of local, instantaneous near-wall temperature gradients and the resulting heat fluxes.
Technical Paper

Gas Assisted Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean LPG in a Spark Ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0506
Gas assisted jet ignition is an advanced prechamber ignition process that allows ignition of ultra lean mixtures in an otherwise standard spark ignition engine. The results presented in this paper indicate that in a gas assisted jet ignition system fuelled with LPG in both the main chamber and prechamber, the lean limit can be extended to between λ = 2-2.35, depending on the load and speed. Although the fuel combinations that employ H2 as the prechamber fuel can extend the lean limit furthest (λ = 2.5-2.6), the extension enabled by the LPG-LPG prechamber-main chamber combination provides lower NOx emission levels at similar λ. In addition, when LPG is employed in place of gasoline as the main chamber fuel, hydrocarbon emissions are significantly reduced, however with a slight penalty in indicated mean effective pressure due to the gaseous state of the LPG.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0932
This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-0929
In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

Enhanced ICSI Engine Performance With Particle Swarm Optimization

2004-01-16
2004-28-0075
Increasing engine power and efficiency using a particle swarm optimization technique is investigated by using thermodynamics based quasi-steady engine simulation model. A simplified engine friction model is also incorporated to estimate the brake power output. Further, a simple knock model is used to make sure of knock free engine operation. Model is calibrated and validated to a Ford Falcon AU six-cylinder gasoline engine. Nine different engine-operating parameters are considered as input variables for the optimization; spark timing, equivalence ratio, compression ratio, inlet and exhaust vale opening timing and durations, maximum inlet valve lift and manifold pressure. Significant improvement of the engine power output for a given amount of induced gas is observed with the optimized conditions when compared to the corresponding power output with the reference engines normal operating conditions.
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