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Technical Paper

Effects of a Wide Range of Drive Cycles on the Emissions from Vehicles of Three Levels of Technology

Exhaust emission tests were performed on a fleet of vehicles comprising a range of engine technology from leaded fuel control methods to closed loop three-way catalyst meeting 1992 U.S. standards but marketed in Australia. Each vehicle was tested to 5 different driving cycles including the FTP cycles and steady speed driving. Research had shown that for hot-start operation the major driving pattern parameters which influence fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are average speed and PKE (the positive acceleration kinetic energy per unit distance). Plots from analysis of micro-trip fuel use and emissions rates from the test cycles may be presented as contours in PKE. It follows that the micro trip emissions from a range of driving cycles including, regulated e.g. FTP city and unregulated e.g. LA-92, recently developed EPA cycles or from other cities e.g. Bangkok can be superimposed.
Technical Paper

Car Fuel Efficiency-Where Next

A validated model which attributes fuel consumption to 11 components of a vehicle's energy loss, has been applied to investigate the benefits from improvements in design parameters which can reduce fuel use. Sensitivity analysis of a large, family sized car, gives the ranked order of design variables for improving fuel consumption as: vehicle mass, idle fuel rate or engine friction (or both) and rolling resistance for urban driving. Amongst the remaining parameters aerodynamic drag is lowly ranked but, in highway driving, it ranks first along with vehicle mass and rolling resistance, thus indicating that the proportion of urban to highway driving, which will vary from country to country is important. Driving conditions should be optimised along with vehicle design for best energy conservation and greenhouse gas mitigation.
Technical Paper

A Before and After Study of the Change to Unleaded Gasoline-Test Results from EPA and Other Cycles

A fleet of 50, 1986-1987 model year cars designed for unleaded gasoline has been tested on the road and on a chassis dynamometer over 5 driving cycles and a wide range of other manoeuvres including steady speeds. It was found that the fuel consumption of this fleet was 17 to 23% (depending on test cycle) less than that of a corresponding fleet to leaded fuelled cars of 1980 model year average. Exhaust emissions were significantly lowered in the range of 45 to 93%. However trend line analysis of the several data sets indicates that the ULG fleet has about 6% higher fuel consumption than would have been expected if there had been a continuing evolution of leaded vehicle technology. The data base produced has applicability to a wide range of planning and design tasks, and those illustrated indicate the effects of speed limit changes and advisory speed signs on fuel consumption and emissions.
Technical Paper

The Performance and Emissions of the Turbocharged Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (TC-ALSI) Engine

This paper extends previous development of the ALSI concept, by investigating the performance delivered with a turbocharged version of this engine. The research is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using hydrogen, LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used extensively for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is the wide ranging evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean limit mixture shift of more than one unit of lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The paper describes the capability of the ultra lean burn spark ignition engine with the mild boost needed provided by a Honeywell turbocharger.
Technical Paper

The Lean Burn Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Flexi Gas Fuel LPG/CNG Engine

This paper explores through engine simulations the use of LPG and CNG gas fuels in a 1.5 liter Spark Ignition (SI) four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder equipped with a novel mixture preparation and ignition system comprising centrally located Direct Injection (DI) injector and Jet Ignition (JI) nozzles. With DI technology, the fuel may be introduced within the cylinder after completion of the valve events. DI of fuel reduces the embedded air displacement effects of gaseous fuels and lowers the charge temperature. DI also allows lean stratified bulk combustion with enhanced rate of combustion and reduced heat transfer to the cylinder walls creating a bulk lean stratified mixture.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pfi and Di Superbike Engines

Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) is a technique that was successful in motor sports several decades ago and is now relatively popular in passenger car applications only. DI gasoline fuel injectors have been recently improved considerably, with much higher fuel flow rates and much finer atomization enabled by the advances in fuel pressure and needle actuation. These improved injector performance and the general interest in reducing fuel consumption also in motor sports have made this option interesting again. This paper compares Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and DI of gasoline fuel in a high performance, four cylinder spark ignition engine for super bike racing. Computations are performed with a code for gas exchange, heat transfer and combustion, simulating turbulent combustion and knock.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of Engine Down-Sized to High Efficieincy ICEs in Optimized Hybrid Vehicles

A real time energy management (EMS) optimizing algorithm is introduced that performs similar to offline dynamic programming (DP) for parallel HEVs. The EMS and the DP are compared, especially with the addition of a local hill climbing technique, to the example performance prediction of the fuel consumption of a 1.67 tonne large car using a 50 kW Honda Insight engine (representing 65% power reduction from standard) as reference. Then the performance of the vehicle in HEV mode, with a parallel 30 kW motor/generator is examined. The average improvement of this vehicle over five drive cycles from around the world is about 50% reduction in fuel consumption. Next the engine is replaced with an advanced SI turbocharged engine with assisted ignition which returns the performance to that expected of this class of car i.e. 0-100 km/h acceleration time of 7 s. This results in a 14% average reduction in fuel consumption across the five cycles compared with the base Honda engine.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Performance and Limitations of a Downsized Formula SAE Engine in Normally Aspirated, Supercharged and Turbocharged Modes

This paper compares the performance of a small two cylinder, 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) and forced induction modes on 98-RON pump gasoline. These modes are defined by variations in the induction system and associated compression ratio (CR) alterations needed to avoid knock and maximize volumetric efficiency (ηVOL). These modes included: (A) NA with carburetion (B) NA with port fuel injection (PFI) (C) Mildly Supercharged (SC) with PFI (D) Highly Turbocharged (TC) with PFI The results have significant relevance in defining the limitations for small downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, with power increases needed via intake boosting to compensate for the reduced swept volume. Performance is compared in the varying modes with comparisons of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), brake power, ηVOL, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (ηTH).
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Effects on Performance, Efficiency, Emissions and Combustion in a Carbureted and PFI Small Engine

This paper compares the performance, efficiency, emissions and combustion parameters of a prototype two cylinder 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) modes with compression ratio (CR) variations. Experiments were completed using 98-RON pump gasoline with modes defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection (PFI). The results from this paper provide some insight into the CR effects for small NA spark ignition (SI) engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as engine downsizing grows in popularity due to rising oil prices and recent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission regulations. Results are displayed in the engine speed, manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and CR domains, with engine speeds exceeding 10000 rev/min and CRs ranging from 9 to 13. Combustion analysis is also included, allowing mass fraction burn (MFB) comparison.
Technical Paper

Optimized Design of a Cyclic Variability Constrained Lean Limit SI Engine at Optimum NOx and Efficiency Using a PSO Algorithm

In recent times new tools have emerged to aid the optimization of engine design. The particle swarm optimizer, used here is one of these tools. However, applying it to the optimization of the S.I. engine for high efficiency and low NOx emission has shown the preference of ultra lean burn strategy combined with high compression ratios. For combined power, efficiency and emissions benefits, there are two restricting factors, limiting the applicability of this strategy, knocking and cyclic variability. In the ultra lean region, knocking is not an important issue but the variability is a major concern. This paper demonstrates the application of a variability model to limit the search domain for the optimization program. The results show that variability constrains the possible gains in fuel consumption and emission reduction, through optimizing cam phasing, mixture and spark timing. The fuel consumption gain is reduced by about 11% relative.
Technical Paper

Joint Efficiency and NOx Optimization Using a PSO Algorithm

The challenge of tough fuel consumption reduction targets and near zero NOx emission standards can be met by optimization of the full range of engine design variables. Here these are explored through an engine simulation model and the application of an optimizing algorithm that can work in discontinuous data space. The combustion model has main features that include flame propagation, the effects of turbulence, chamber shape interaction and NOx formation. Two engine configurations are used to illustrate the application of the model and optimizer. Both allow the adoption of extra lean burn possible with LPG as fuel and EGR through an external route or cam phasing. In the first the compression ratio and cam profiles are fixed, in the second study they are also optimized.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility of Downsizing a 1.25 Liter Normally Aspirated Engine to a 0.43 Liter Highly Turbocharged Engine

In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Journal Article

Combustion System Development and Analysis of a Downsized Highly Turbocharged PFI Small Engine

This paper provides some insight into the future direction for developing smaller capacity downsized engines, which will be needed to meet tight CO₂ targets and the world's future powertrain requirements. This paper focuses on the combustion system development and combustion analysis results for a downsized 0.43-liter highly turbocharged engine. The inline two-cylinder engine used in experiments was specifically designed and constructed to enable 25 bar BMEP. Producing this specific output is one way forward for future passenger vehicle powertrains, enabling in excess of 50% swept capacity reduction whilst maintaining comparable vehicle performance. Previous experiments and analysis have found that the extent to which larger engines can be downsized while still maintaining equal performance is combustion limited.