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Technical Paper

Improvement of Engine Performance With Lean Mixture Ignited By Diesel Fuel Injection and Internal Egr

2000-06-12
2000-05-0076
The uniform lean methanol-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. The internal EGR is added to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture and to increase the mixture temperature. The test engine was a 4-stroke, single- cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The cooling system was forced-air cooling and displacement volume was about 211 (cm3). The compression ratio was about 19.9:1. The experiment was made under constant engine speed of 3000 (r/min). The boost pressure was maintained at 101.3 (kPa). Five values of mass flow rate of diesel fuel injection were selected from 0.060 (g/s) to 0.167 (g/s) and five levels of back pressure: 0), 26.7, 53.3, 80.0 and 106.6 (kPa) were selected for the experiment. The effect of internal EGR is varied by the back pressure level.
Technical Paper

Performance of Air Motor with Regenerating System Designed for Propulsion of Bicycle

2011-11-08
2011-32-0615
An air motor with regenerating system for propulsion of a bicycle was newly developed. An air motor was driven by the compressed air and the bicycle was propelled. When the bicycle was decelerating, the air motor was acted as a compressor and the kinetic energy of bicycle was regenerated as compressed air. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the performance of air motor and driving characteristic of bicycle. The air motor in this study was the reciprocating piston type like an internal combustion engine, and cylinder arrangement was in-line two-cylinder. The output power increased with an increase of supply air pressure although the maximum cylinder pressure was less than the supply air pressure. The output power decreased as the revolution increased due to friction loss. The maximum cylinder pressure reduced as the rotational frequency increased because the inlet valve opening duration was decreased.
Technical Paper

A Study on Influence of Forced Over Cooling on Diesel Engine Performance

2011-11-08
2011-32-0605
The ignitability and engine performance of FAMEs at the cold condition were experimentally investigated by using two FAMEs, i.e. coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and soybean oil methyl ester (SME). The cold start test and forced over cooling test were conducted. In the forced over cooling test, engine was forced cooled by the injecting water mist to engine cooling fin. In the cold start test, the cylinder pressure of CME rose earliest because CME has a superior ignitability. The crank angle at ignitions of diesel fuel and CME were not so affected by the forced over cooling, however ignition timing of SME was remarkably delayed. In cases of forced over cooling, COV of maximum combustion pressure of CME was lower than that of normal air cooling condition. The forced over cooling has a potential to reduce NOx emission, however HC, CO and smoke concentrations were increased in a high load due to incomplete combustion.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Study of Two-Stage High Temperature Heat Release Behavior in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using Blended Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1788
This study examined the effects of fuel composition and intake pressure on two-stage high temperature heat release characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the combustion behavior in detail. Chemical kinetic simulations were also conducted to analyze the reaction mechanisms in detail. Blended fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane were used in the experiments. It was found that the use of such fuel blends together with a suitable intake air flow rate corresponding to the total injected heat value gave rise to two-stage heat release behavior of the hot flame, which had the effect of moderating combustion. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the chemical kinetic simulations revealed that the main reaction of the first stage of the hot flame heat release was one that produced CO from HCHO.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

2015-11-17
2015-32-0770
Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Technical Paper

Study on Flame Behavior Control by the Electric Field

2015-11-17
2015-32-0738
The purpose of this study is to elucidate flame propagation behavior of homogeneous propane-air mixture under application of non-uniform electric field. A needle-shaped electrode was attached to the ceiling and a plate electrode was set at bottom of combustion chamber, so that the electric field was applied in the direction of the chamber's vertical axis. A homogeneous propane-air mixture was supplied at equivalence ratio of 1.0 and was ignited by leaser induced breakdown under atmospheric pressure and room temperature. It was found that the flame front and plate electrode were repelled each other and a thin air layer was formed between the flame and plate electrode when a relatively low positive DC non-uniform electric field was applied to the needle-shaped electrode. It might be thought that the induced current was generated in the flame front, so that the flame front and plate electrode repelled each other.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Knocking Characteristics of an SI-HCCI Engine by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

2016-11-08
2016-32-0005
In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0085
This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance of Lean Methanol-Air Mixture Ignited by Diesel Fuel Injection Applied with Internal EGR

2000-06-19
2000-01-2012
The uniform lean methanol-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by direct diesel fuel injection. In this study, the internal EGR is added to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture and to increase the temperature of the mixture before the ignition. It is confirmed that the lean methanol-air mixture of air-fuel ratio between 130 and 18 could be ignited and burned when the back pressure of 80 [kPa] is added. The ignition and combustion characteristics can be improved by the internal EGR, however the engine performance and NOx emission deteriorated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Uniform and Non-uniform Electric Field on Premixed Combustion

2007-10-30
2007-32-0034
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the flame propagation behavior under the electric field application by using the constant volume vessel. The laser induced breakdown applies the ignition and Nd:YAG laser is used. A homogeneous propane-air mixture is used and three equivalence ratios, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 are tested. In the uniform electric field, the premixed flame rapidly propagates toward both upward and downward directions and the flame front becomes a cylindrical shape. The maximum combustion pressure decreases with an increase of input voltage because of an increase of heat loss to the electrode, however the combustion duration is hardly affected by the input voltage. In the non-uniform electric field, the flame propagation velocity of downward direction increases. The combustion enhancement effect is remarkably when the input voltage is larger than 12 kV because the brush corona occurs and intense turbulence is generated on the flame front.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Gas Emissions of Lean Mixture Ignited by Direct Diesel Fuel Injection with Internal EGR

1999-09-28
1999-01-3265
The uniform lean gasoline-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. In this study, the internal EGR is add to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture before the ignition. It is confirmed that the lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 40 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method when the back pressure of 80 [kPa] is added, and the burning period is shorted by internal EGR. However, as the back pressure increases, NOx concentration is increased by the high temperature residual gas.
Technical Paper

8 A Study of the Influence of Fuel Temperature on Emission Characteristics and Engine Performance of Compression Ignition Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1777
In this study, the heated fuels were provided to the diesel engine in order to activate the fuel before the injection. Two test fuels: the normal diesel fuel and cetane, which have different boiling points were used. For both normal diesel fuel and cetane, crank angles at ignition and maximum pressure are delayed and the maximum combustion pressure is decreased as the fuel temperature rises. In cases of large and middle mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are decreased when the fuel temperature is higher than 570 [K]. However, in the case of small mass flow rate of fuel injection, the brake thermal efficiency is almost independent of fuel temperature. HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas emission show constant values regardless of fuel temperature. However, NOx concentration is gradually decreased as the fuel temperature rises.
Journal Article

A Study of an HCCI Engine Operating on a Blended Fuel of DME and Methane

2011-11-08
2011-32-0522
In this study, experiments were conducted using a blend of two types of fuel with different ignition characteristics. One was dimethyl ether (DME) that has a high cetane number, autoignites easily and displays low-temperature oxidation reaction mechanisms; the other was methane that has a cetane number of zero and does not autoignite easily. A mechanically driven supercharger was provided in the intake pipe to adjust the intake air pressure. Moreover, flame light in the combustion chamber was extracted using a system for observing light emission that occurred in the space between the cylinder head and the cylinder and in the bore direction of the piston crown. The results of previous studies conducted with a supercharged HCCI engine and a blended fuel of DME and methane have shown that heat release of the hot flame is divided into two stages and that combustion can be moderated by reducing the peak heat release rate (HRR).
Journal Article

A Study of the Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Waves under HCCI Knocking by using an Optically Accessible Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1795
This study investigated the origin of knocking combustion accompanied by pressure wave and strong pressure oscillations in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke single cylinder optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The test fuel used was n-heptane. The equivalence ratio and intake temperature were varied to induce a transition from moderate HCCI combustion to extremely rapid HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations. Local autoignition and pressure wave behavior under each set of operating conditions were investigated in detail on the basis of high-speed in-cylinder visualization and in-cylinder pressure analysis. As a result, under conditions where strong knocking occurs, a brilliant flame originates from the burned gas side in the process where the locally occurring autoignition gradually spreads to multiple locations.
Journal Article

A Study of HCCI Knocking Accompanied by Pressure Oscillations Based on Visualization of the Entire Bore Area

2014-10-13
2014-01-2664
Knocking combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a test engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The purpose was to make clear the detailed characteristics of knocking combustion that occurs accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations when a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is operated at high loads. Knocking combustion was intentionally induced by varying the main combustion period and engine speed. Under such conditions, knocking in HCCI combustion was investigated in detail on the basis of cylinder pressure analysis, high-speed photography of the combustion flame and spectroscopic measurement of flame light emissions. The results revealed that locally occurring autoignition took place rapidly at multiple locations in the cylinder when knocking combustion occurred. In that process, the unburned end gas subsequently underwent even more rapid autoignition, giving rise to cylinder pressure oscillations.
Journal Article

A Study of Supercharged HCCI Combustion using In-cylinder Spectroscopic Techniques and Chemical Kinetic Calculation

2013-10-15
2013-32-9171
A great deal of interest is focused on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion today as a combustion system enabling internal combustion engines to attain higher efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions. Because the air-fuel mixture is compression-ignited in an HCCI engine, control of the ignition timing is a key issue. Additionally, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the combustion chamber, it is necessary to control the resultant rapid combustion, especially in the high-load region. Supercharging can be cited as one approach that is effective in facilitating high-load operation of HCCI engines. Supercharging increases the intake air quantity to increase the heat capacity of the working gas, thereby lowering the combustion temperature for injection of the same quantity of fuel. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supercharging on combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine.
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