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Technical Paper

Characterization of Edge Fracture in Various Types of Advanced High Strength Steel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1058
In vehicle crash events there is the potential for fracture to occur at the processed edges of structural components. The ability to avoid these types of fractures is desired in order to minimize intrusion and optimize energy absorption. However, the prediction of edge cracking is complicated by the fact that conventional tensile testing can provide insufficient data in regards to the local fracture behavior of advanced high strength steels. Fracture prediction is also made difficult because there can be inadequate data on how the cutting processes used for hole piercing and blanking affect the edge condition. In order to address these challenges, research was undertaken to analyze edge fracture in simple test pieces configured with side notches and center holes. Test specimens were made from a number of advanced high strength steels including 590R (C-Mn), 780T (TRIP), 980Y (dual phase) and hot stamp 1500 (martensitic).
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach for Generating a Full-Range Tensile Stress-Strain Curve

2009-04-20
2009-01-0470
A new method has been developed to measure full stress-strain curves using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) for Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). With the post-necking strain measured by the built in-house DIC system during tensile tests, stress-strain data for AHSS beyond uniform elongation up to fracture can be determined. In this paper, the technique to generate full stress-strain curves by DIC is introduced. The measured stress-strain curves are compared with those obtained by extrapolation methods. The measured stress-strain data generated by the new method is validated by finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

Unloading Modulus on Springback in Steels

2004-03-08
2004-01-1050
Springback is one of the major concerns as more advanced high strength steels are used in the automotive industry. Unlike FEA forming simulation, FEA springback simulation is not widely used in the production due to its poor accuracy. One of the reasons for this is that some complex material behaviors are not fully considered in the FEA simulations. In this study, a number of experiments were conducted to study the unloading behavior of steels with different pre-strain levels. Unloading modulus and related damage parameters at 1%, 2% and 5% pre-strain are calculated for 14 different steel grades from the experimental data to consider the inelastic effects during unloading. The unloading modulus was found to be 10% to 20% lower than the Young's modulus. FEA springback simulations were conducted for a benchmark test with two steel grades. Simulated springback results are compared with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of GMAW Welds for Four Advanced High Strength Steels

2005-04-11
2005-01-0904
This paper investigates the characteristics of GMAW of various sheet steels grades ranging from HSLA, dual phase, to martensitic. From the arc welding point of view, the dual phase and martensitic steels behave similarly to conventional high strength steels. Regarding the properties of GMAW joints, the static and dynamic mechanical testing were conducted and compared along with the weld metal microhardness and microstructure. Results show that while the strength of the sheet steel weld, in general increases with the base material strength, Joint Efficiency, defined as the ratio of the strength of joint to the strength of the base metal, decreases with the increase of martensite fraction in the sheet steel. Martensitic steels, especially, exhibits reduced weld strength due to softening of the HAZ. However, fatigue strength of these steels is not adversely affected by the softened HAZ, and is insensitive to the strength of the steel.
Journal Article

A Mixed-Mode Fracture Criterion for AHSS Cracking Prediction at Large Strain

2011-04-12
2011-01-0007
Predicting AHSS cracking during crash events and forming processes is an enabling technology for AHSS application. Several fracture criteria including MatFEM and Modified Mohr-Coulomb Criterion were developed recently. However, none of them are designed to cover more fracture modes such as bending fracture and tearing fracture with initial damage. A mixed-mode fracture criterion (MMFC) is proposed and developed to capture multiple fracture modes including in-plane shearing fracture, cross-thickness shearing fracture with bending effect and tearing fracture with initial damage. The associated calibration procedure for this criterion is developed. The criterion is implemented in a commercial FEA code and several lab validations are conducted. The results show its promising potential to predict AHSS cracking at large strain conditions.
Journal Article

Measurement of Fracture Strains for Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Using Digital Image Correlation

2009-04-20
2009-01-1174
Predicting fracture behavior of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) on both manufacturing and crash simulations is becoming more and more important with the wide use of AHSS in automotive industry. The accurate measurement of fracture strains is a critical input for predicting failure in FEA simulations. It is well known that fracture is a highly localized behavior and fracture strain is gauge or size dependent. In this paper, a full field measurement technique, Digital Image Correlation (DIC), is employed to measure gauge-dependent fracture strains for several Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) under tensile test conditions and Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests. Applications of the fracture strains for FEA simulation are discussed.
Journal Article

Experiences with Experimental Determination of the Yield Locus and its Evolution for Advanced High Strength Steels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0976
Accurate description of the plastic yield locus is important for accurate prediction of sheet metal formability and springback using FEM. This paper presents experimental results obtained for the initial plastic yield locus and its evolution for some selected Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). A review of available experimental methods was conducted to select appropriate techniques for testing. For loading in tension-shear, the Arcan test was selected, however because of lack of uniformity of the stress distribution, the test was not included in the final series of tests. Shear testing, uniaxial tensile testing, plane strain testing and stacked compression testing were used to determine the yield locus. From the test results and analysis for the selected AHSS, it seems that the onset of initial yielding and its isotropic evolution to 4% plastic strain is best described by the von Mises yield function.
Journal Article

Advanced Material Characterizations and Constitutive Modeling for AHSS Springback Predictions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0980
Springback prediction is one of the roadblocks for using advanced high strength steel in the automotive industry. Accurate characterization and modeling of the mechanical behavior of AHSS is recognized as one of the critical factors for successful prediction of springback. Conventional tensile test based material characterization and constitutive modeling may lead to poor springback simulation accuracy. Aiming to accurately predict springback, a series of advanced material characterizations including bi-axial material testing, large-strain loading path reversal testing, unloading tests at large strain, stress-strain behavior beyond uniform elongation, were performed for selected AHSS and associated constitutive models were developed to incorporate these characterizations. Validations through lab samples and industrial parts show that the AHSS springback prediction accuracy is significantly improved with these improved material models.
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