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Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oil Recycler on Emissions with Oil Age for a Refuse Truck Using in Service Testing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0623
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine bypass particulate filter followed by an infra red heater. Two bypass filter sizes of 6 and 1 micron were investigated, both filter sizes were effective but the one micron filter had the greatest benefit. This was tested on two nominally identical EURO 1 emissions compliance refuse trucks, fitted with Perkins Phazer 210Ti 6 litre turbocharged intercooled engines and coded as RT320 and RT321. These vehicles had emissions characteristics that were significantly different, in spite of their similar age and total mileage. RT321 showed an apparent heavier black smoke than RT320. Comparison was made with the emissions on the same vehicles and engines with and without the on-line bypass oil recycler. Engine exhaust emissions were measured about every 400 miles. Both vehicles started the test with an oil drain and fresh lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Lubricating Oil Quality by an On Line Oil Recycler for a Refuse Truck Using in Service Testing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0699
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine bypass particulate filter followed by an infra red heater. Two bypass filter sizes of 6 and 1 micron were investigated, both filter sizes were effective but the one micron filter had the greatest benefit. This was tested on two nominally identical EURO 1 emissions compliance refuse trucks, fitted with Perkins Phazer 210Ti 6 litre turbocharged intercooled engines and coded as RT320 and RT321. These vehicles had lubricating oil deterioration and emissions characteristics that were significantly different, in spite of their similar age and total mileage. RT321 showed an apparent heavier black smoke than RT320. Comparison was made with the oil quality and fuel and lubricating oil consumption on the same vehicles and engines with and without the on-line bypass oil recycler. Engine oils were sampled and analysed about every 400 miles. Both vehicles started the test with an oil drain and fresh lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

Driver Variability Influences on Real World Emissions at a Road Junction using a PEMS

2010-04-12
2010-01-1072
A Euro 2 SI (Spark Ignition) Mondeo was investigated for a fully warmed-up vehicle on a simple urban driving loop. Emissions were monitored using an on-board Horiba OBS (On-Board emission measurement System) 1300. 10 laps of a 0.6 km loop were driven by each driver and this involved 4 junctions per lap. Statistical analysis of 20 drivers was made over 27 repeat junction events for each driver. The statistical analysis of the data showed that for all drivers the CO₂, speed and throttle position were more typical Gaussian in their distribution. NOx and CO on the other hand were lognormal in their distribution. Acceleration, positive and negative throttle jerks (rate of change of throttle angle) were borderline Gaussian. HC (Hydrocarbon) emissions were not Gaussian and there was some evidence for a gamma distribution and for a lognormal distribution. Comparison of mean HC emissions between the drivers was therefore not reliable.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Regulated and Unregulated Cold Start Emissions for Different Real World Urban Driving Cycles Using a SI Passenger Car

2008-06-23
2008-01-1648
An in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system was used to investigate the exhaust emissions under different real world urban driving conditions. Five different driving cycles were developed based on real world urban driving conditions including urban free flow driving, junction maneuver, congested traffic and moderate speed cruising. The test vehicle was a EURO 2 emission compliant SI car equipped with temperature measurement along the exhaust pipe across the catalyst and real time fuel consumption measurement system. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured and analyzed for different driving cycles. All journeys were started from cold. The engine warm up features and emissions as a function of engine warm up for different driving conditions were investigated.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Real World Emissions in Urban Driving for Euro 1-4 Vehicles Using a PEMS

2009-04-20
2009-01-0941
An on-board emission measurement system (PEMS), the Horiba OBS 1300, was installed in Euro 1-4 SI cars of the same model to investigate the impact of vehicle technology on exhaust emissions, under urban driving conditions with a fully warmed-up catalyst. A typical urban driving loop cycle was used with no traffic loading so that driver behavior without the influence of other traffic could be investigated. The results showed that under real world driving conditions the NOx emissions exceeded the legislated values and only at cruise was the NOx emissions below the legislated value. The higher NOx emissions during real-world driving have implications for higher urban Ozone formation. With the exception of the old EURO1 vehicle, HC and CO emissions were under control for all the vehicles, as these are dominated by cold start issues, which were not included in this investigation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ambient Temperatures on VOC Emissions and OFP during Cold Start for SI Car Real World Urban Driving

2009-06-15
2009-01-1865
New EU environmental law requires 31 ozone precursor VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) to be measured for urban air quality control. In this study, 23 out of the 31 ozone precursor VOCs were measured at a rate of 0.5 HZ by an in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) emission measurement system along with 15 other VOCs. The vehicle used was a EURO2 emission compliant SI car. The test vehicle was driven under real world urban driving conditions on the same route by the same driver on different days at different ambient temperatures. All the journeys were started from cold. The VOC emissions and OFP (Ozone Formation Potential) as a function of engine warm up and ambient temperatures during cold start were investigated. The exhaust temperatures were measured along with the exhaust emissions. The temperature and duration of light off of the catalyst for VOCs was monitored.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Aldehyde and VOC Emissions during Cold Start and Hot Engine Operations using 100% Biofuels for a DI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1515
Aldehydes and other Volatile Organic compounds (VOC) are assessed under cold start and steady state conditions using a Perkins Phaser 6 litre diesel engine. A comparison is made between petroleum diesel fuel (PD), 100% biodiesel (WME) and 100% rapeseed oil (RSO). A Temet FTIR was used to determine aldehydes including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein. The diesel engine was cold started at room temperature using a step start up procedure that kept the power output constant at two steady state conditions: 23kW and 47kW. Very little difference was observed between petroleum diesel and biodiesel aldehyde emissions at either steady state conditions or during cold start. There was, however, an increase in aldehydes at steady state for rapeseed oil, particularly at low load, but only for from ∼10ppm to 25 ppm for formaldehyde (i.e. 0.12g/kWh to 0.37g/kWh). During cold start conditions, the emissions were significantly higher for rapeseed oil than for petroleum diesel.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Pre-Heating on Combustion and Emissions with 100% Rapeseed Oil for a DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0486
This work investigates the heating of unprocessed rapeseed oil as a means to improve fuel delivery by reducing the fuel viscosity, and to assess the effects on combustion performance. The results show that a simple low power heater with thermal insulation around the fuel line and pump can effectively raise the operational fuel temperature at delivery to the pump. The results show that even with a moderate temperature increase, the fuel flow limitations with rapeseed oil are reduced and the legislated gaseous emissions are reduced at steady state conditions. As one of the main reasons for the conversion of straight oils to the methyl ester, ie biodiesel, is to reduce the viscosity, this work shows that heating the oil can have a similar effect. An emissions benefit is observed with biodiesel compared to rapeseed oil but this is not large. There is also a significant greenhouse gas and cost benefit associated with straight vegetable oils.
Technical Paper

Diesel Cold Start into Congested Real World Traffic: Comparison of Diesel and B100 for Ozone Forming Potential

2013-04-08
2013-01-1145
EU environmental law requires 30 ozone precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be measured for urban air quality control. In this study, 28 ozone precursor VOCs were measured at a rate of 0.5 Hz by an in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system along with other VOCs. The vehicle used was a Euro 3 emission compliant diesel van. The test vehicle was started from a cold ambient temperature soak and driven under real world urban driving conditions. Diesel and B100 (100% Biodiesel) were compared using the same repeat journeys. The VOC emissions and OFP (ozone formation potential) were investigated as a function of engine warm up and ambient temperatures during cold start. The exhaust temperatures were measured along with the exhaust emissions. The temperature and duration of light off of the catalyst for VOC were monitored and showed a cold start period to catalyst light off that was considerably longer than would occur on the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle).
Technical Paper

Real World Diesel Engine Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Diesel Fuel and B100

2013-04-08
2013-01-1514
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function temperature. It should be highlighted that methane is a greenhouse gas that similarly to carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. An oxidation catalyst was used to investigate CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ GHG emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. The results were determined under hot start conditions, but in congested traffic the catalyst cooled below its light-off temperature and this resulted in considerable N₂O emissions as the oxidation catalyst temperature was in the N₂O formation band. This showed higher N₂O during hot start than for diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME.
Technical Paper

Examining the Influence of Road Grade on Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission over a Real-World Driving Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1518
The Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) emission from a EURO 3 diesel van over a real-world driving cycle were investigated utilizing part of the Leeds University - Headingly Ring Road (LU-HR) driving cycle, which comprises both an urban (congested) and extra-urban (high speed) driving section. The vehicle used in this research was a 1.8-liter Ford Connect TDCi diesel van. Emissions were monitored by a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) incorporating an on-board FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) exhaust emission measurement system, a Horiba On Board emissions measuring System (OBS 1300) which measured the exhaust flow rate and air/fuel ratio, and a RaceLogic VBOX II differential GPS system provided geographical position, speed and acceleration data. Route topography is known to have substantial influence on vehicle emission.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by a Synthetic Lubricating Oil with Higher Viscosity Grade and Optimized Additive Package for a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Test

2008-10-06
2008-01-2489
A 10W-50 G4 synthetic lubricating oil (EULUBE oil) was tested on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under two steady state conditions. The exhaust emissions were measured and compared to a 10W-30 CF semi-synthetic lubricating oil. The EULUBE oil contained the friction reduction additive to improve the fuel economy. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The exhaust samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Gaseous and particulates emissions were measured. Particulate size distribution was measured using ELPI and SMPS. The particulate samples were analysed for VOF, carbon and ash. A MEXA7100 gas analysis system was used for legislated gas analysis such as CO, CO2, NOx and total hydrocarbons. The results showed a significant reduction by synthetic lubricating oil in gaseous hydrocarbon emissions, total particulate mass, particulate carbon and ash.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Regulated and Non-Regulated Cold Start Emissions using a EURO3 SI Car as a Probe Vehicle under Real World Urban Driving Conditions

2008-10-06
2008-01-2428
Regulated and non-regulated tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions using a set of in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system, which is able to measure 65 emission components simultaneously at a rate of 0.5 Hz. A EURO3 emission compliant SI car was used as a probe vehicle. An urban driving cycle was used for the test and four repeated journeys were conducted. The results were compared to EU emissions legislation. The results show that the TWC needed approximately 200 seconds to reach full conversion efficiency. THC and NOx emissions exceeded the EURO 3 exhaust emission legislation. CO2 emissions were well above the type approval value of this type of the vehicle. Greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) and toxic hydrocarbons such as benzene were predominantly emitted during cold start period from 0 to 200 seconds of the engine start. The results had a reasonable repeatability for most of the emissions.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of the Exhaust Emissions for Different Generations of SI Cars under Real World Urban Driving Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0754
EURO 1, 2 3 and 4 SI (Spark Ignition) Ford Mondeo passenger cars were compared for their real world cold start emissions using an on-board FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) exhaust emission measurement system. The FTIR system can measure up to 65 species including both regulated and non-regulated exhaust pollutants at a rate of 0.5 Hz. The driving parameters such as speed, fuel consumption and air/fuel ratio were logged. The coolant water, lube oil and exhaust temperatures were also recorded. A typical urban driving cycle including a loop and a section of straight road was used for the comparison test as it was similar to the legislative ECE15 urban driving cycle. Exhaust emissions were calculated for the whole journey average and compared to EU legislation. The cold start transient emissions were also investigated as a separate parameter and this was where there was the greatest difference between the four vehicles.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate PAH Emissions for Diesel, Biodiesel and Cooking Oil using a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1811
An investigation was conducted into particulate PAH emissions from a heavy duty DI diesel engine using; a typical diesel fuel, 100% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oils, and 100% rapeseed oil supplied as fresh cooking oil. This study quantifies the particulate PAH levels emitted at two steady state load conditions, with comparison of the oxidation catalyst efficiency for the main species identified. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2. Particulate samples were also analysed for VOF and carbon content. Both biofuels resulted in reductions in the most abundant particulate PAH species, particularly at the lower load condition. Larger species such as Benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo (k)fluoranthene were detectable for all fuels upstream of the catalyst but were oxidized to near or below detection limits downstream of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Evaluation of On-board Exhaust Emission Measurement System Performance in SI Car under Transient Operating Conditions

2008-06-23
2008-01-1826
A commercial on-board exhaust emissions measurement system, the Horiba OBS-1300, was evaluated in a series of chassis dynamometer test trails. A EURO 1 (petrol) SI passenger car, operated under normal and rich combustion conditions, and a combination of static and transient sampling provided a wide range of measurement conditions for the evaluation exercise. The chassis dynamometer facility incorporated an ‘industry standard’ measurement system comprising MEXA-7400 gas analyzer and CVS bag sampling system which were used as ‘benchmarks’ for the evaluation of both OBS-1300 component (exhaust flow meter and species analyzer) measurements and ‘daughter’ emission measurements for regulated gas-phase species (CO, CO2, HC and NOx). Trials demonstrated very good to reasonable agreement for exhaust flow and CO, CO2 and HC concentration measurements during static (R2 ≈ 0.97, 0.99, 0.99 and 0.97, respectively) and transient (R2 ≈ 0.88, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.86, respectively) testing.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Various Driving Parameters and Emissions for Passenger Cars Driven With and Without Stops at Intersections under Different Test Cycles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0880
Different driving test cycles, the Leeds-West Park (LWP) loop and the Leeds-High Park (LHP) or HPL-A and B (Leeds-Hyde Park Loop-A or B, hereafter referred as HPL-A or B cycle) loop were selected for this urban intersection research and results are presented in this study. Different emissions-compliant petrol passenger cars (EURO 1, 2, 3 and 4) were compared for their real-world emissions. A reasonable distance of steady state speed was needed and for the analysis made in this paper were chosen vehicle speeds at ~20, ~30 and ~40 km/h. Specific spot of periods of driving at the speeds mentioned above were identified, then the starting and ending point was found and the total emissions in g for that period divided by the distance was calculated. A typical urban driving cycle including a loop and a section of straight road was used for the comparison test as it was similar to the legislative ECE15 urban driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Rape Seed Oil B100 Diesel Engine Particulate Emissions: The Influence of Intake Oxygen on Particle Size Distribution

2012-04-16
2012-01-0435
Pure rape seed oil (RSO), as coded BO100 (BO: Bio-Oil) to distinguish from biodiesel was investigated for a range of intake oxygen levels from 21 to 24%. RSO can have deposit problems in both the fuel injector and piston crown and elevated intake oxygen levels potentially could control these by promoting their oxidation. Increased intake oxygen elevates the peak temperature and this promotes the oxidation of soot and volatile organic compounds. The effect of this on particle mass and on the particle size distribution was investigated using a 6-cylinder 6-liter Perkins Phaser Euro 2 DI diesel engine. The tests were conducted at 47 kW brake power output at 1500 rpm. The particle size distribution was determined from the engine-out exhaust sample using a Dekati microdilution system and nano-SMPS analyzer. The results showed that for air RSO had higher particle mass than diesel and that this mass decreased as the oxygen level was increased.
Technical Paper

Real World Cold Start Emissions from a Diesel Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-1075
This study uses on-board measurement systems to analyze emissions from a diesel engine vehicle during the cold start period. An in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform Inferred) spectrometer and a Horiba on-board measurement system (OBS-1300) were installed on a EURO3 emission-compliant 1.8 TDCi diesel van, in order to measure the emissions. Both regulated and non-regulated emissions were measured, along with an analysis of the NO/NO₂ split. A VBOX GPS system was used to log coordinates and road speed for driving parameters and emission analysis. Thermal couples were installed along the exhaust system to measure the temperatures of exhaust gases during cold start. The real-time fuel consumption was measured. The study also looks at the influence of velocity on emissions of hydrocarbons (HCs) and NOx. The cold start period of an SI-engine-powered vehicle, was typically around 200 seconds in urban driving conditions.
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