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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of CAI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap and Simultaneous Chemiluminescence Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-1103
The negative valve overlap has been shown as one of the most effective means to achieve controlled autoignition combustion in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A number of researches have been carried out on the performance and emission characteristics of CAI engines but there are still some fundamental questions that are yet to be addressed such as in-cylinder process. In the present study, a Ricardo Hydra single cylinder, four stroke optical gasoline engine was instrumented to investigate CAI combustion through negative valve overlap configuration. The effects of direct fuel injection timings and direct air injection at lambda 1 were studied by means of simultaneous in-cylinder heat release study and high speed images of complete chemiluminescence emission, OH and CHO radicals. In particular, the minor combustion process during the NVO period with various air injection quantities was studied with both heat release analysis and chemiluminescence results.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Cost Effective Air Hybrid Concept

2009-04-20
2009-01-1111
The air hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, stores it in an air tank in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to propel a vehicle during cruising and acceleration. Capturing, storing and reusing this braking energy to give additional power can therefore improve fuel economy, particularly in cities and urban areas where the traffic conditions involve many stops and starts. In order to reuse the residual kinetic energy, the vehicle operation consists of 3 basic modes, i.e. Compression Mode (CM), Expander Mode (EM) and normal firing mode. Unlike previous works, a low cost air hybrid engine has been proposed and studied. The hybrid engine operation can be realised by means of production technologies, such as VVT and valve deactivation. In this work, systematic investigation has been carried out on the performance of the hybrid engine concept through detailed gas dynamic modelling using Ricardo WAVE software.
Technical Paper

Investigation of CAI Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap and Enlargement of CAI Operating Range

2009-04-20
2009-01-1104
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was investigated in a Ricardo E6 single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved by employing positive valve overlap in combination with variable compression ratios and intake air temperatures. The combustion characteristics and emissions were studied in order to understand the major advantages and drawbacks of CAI combustion with positive valve overlap. The enlargement of the CAI operational region was obtained by boosting intake air and adding external EGR. The lean-boosted operation elevated the range of CAI combustion to the higher load region, whilst the use of external EGR allowed the engine to operate with CAI combustion in the region between boosted and N/A CAI operational ranges. The results were analyzed to investigate combustion characteristics, performance and emissions of the boosted CAI operations.
Technical Paper

CFD Study on Effects of Thermal and Residual Gas Inhomogeneous Distribution on Auto-ignition of Gasoline HCCI Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0160
For a HCCI gasoline combustion engine controlled by burnt residual gas, management of the residual gas and thermal distribution in cylinder is a possible way to optimize the auto-ignition and combustion phasing. The management ability of intake valve on the distribution and its effects on auto-ignition are investigated via KIVA code. The thermal and composition inhomogeneous distribution is quantified as inhomogeneity. The results show that, the thermal inhomogeneous distribution correlates well with that of the residual gas. As the residual gas fraction increases, the residual gas fraction inhomogeneity and the temperature inhomogeneity tend to increase. The residual gas fraction, as well as the in-cylinder residual gas inhomogeneity and temperature inhomogeneity, increases greatly with earlier exhaust valve close timing. When the residual gas fraction is larger than 40%, late intake valve open timing leads to high in-cylinder inhomogeneity.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1673
CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Studies of Fuel Injection and Combustion from a Narrow Cone Fuel Injector in a High Speed Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1789
Over the last decade, the high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine has made dramatic progress in both its performance and market share in the light duty vehicle market. However, with ever more stringent emission legislation to be introduced over coming years, the simultaneous reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) from the HSDI diesel engine is being intensively researched. As part of a European Union (EU) NICE integrated project, research has been carried out to investigate the fuel injection and combustion from a narrow cone fuel injector in a high speed direct injection single cylinder engine with optical access utilising a multiple injection strategy and various alternate fuels. The fuel injection process was visualised using a high speed imaging system comprising a copper vapour laser and a high speed video camera. The auto-ignition and combustion process was analysed through the chemiluminescence images of CHO and OH using an intensified CCD camera.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Combined Hydrogen and Diesel Combustion on the Emissions of a HSDI Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1787
The effects of load, speed, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and hydrogen addition level on the emissions from a diesel engine have been investigated. The experiments were performed on a 2.0 litre, 4 cylinder, direct injection engine with a high pressure common-rail injection system. Injection timing was varied between 14° BTDC and TDC and injection pressures were varied from 800 bar to 1400 bar to find a suitable base point. EGR levels were then varied from 0% to 40%. Hydrogen induction was varied between 0 and 6% vol. of the inlet charge. In the case of using hydrogen and EGR, the hydrogen replaced air. The load was varied from 0 to 5.4 bar BMEP at two engine speeds, 1500 rpm and 2500 rpm. For this investigation the carbon monoxide (CO), total unburnt hydrocarbons (THC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the filter smoke number (FSN) were all measured.
Journal Article

The Performance Characteristics of an Production Oriented Air Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0821
In a previous paper [ 1 ], the authors have proposed a cost effective air hybrid concept based on a proprietary intake system and cam profile switching (CPS) system [ 2 ]. It was shown through engine simulations that the pneumatic hybrid operation could be achieved with about 15% regenerative efficiency. The proposed air hybrid operation can be achieved with proven technologies and engine components and hence it represents a cost-effective, reliable and quick deployable solution for low carbon vehicles. In this work, a four-cylinder 2 litre diesel engine has been modelled to operate on refined air hybrid engine configurations and the braking and motoring performance of each configuration have been studied. Both air hybrid systems can be constructed with production technologies and incur minimum changes to the existing engine design.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0843
Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Low Load Limit of HCCI Combustion Process Using EIVO Strategy in a 4VVAS Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1121
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in gasoline engine. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its limited operation range. High load is limited by the tradeoff between the quantity of working charge and dilution charge. Low load is limited by the high residual gas fraction and low temperature in the cylinder. One of the highlights of HCCI combustion research at present is to expand the low load limit of HCCI combustion by developing HCCI idle operation. The main obstacle in developing HCCI idle combustion is too high residual gas fraction and low temperature to misfire in cylinder. This paper relates to a method for achieving the appropriate environment for auto-ignition at idle and the optimal tradeoff between the combustion stability and fuel consumption by employing EIVO valve strategy with an equivalent air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Effects of Active Species in Residual Gas on Auto-Ignition in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1115
Chemical reaction kinetics plays an important role in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. In order to control the combustion process, the underlying mechanism of auto-ignition must be explored, especially for the HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy, in which the residual gas affects the auto-ignition of next cycle remarkably. In this research, experimental research was carried out in a single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with an in-cylinder sampling system which mainly consists of a special spark plug, a sampling tube and a high-speed electromagnetic valve. In-cylinder charge was sampled at compression stroke and analyzed by FTIR with two types of fuel injection strategy, such as port fuel injection (PFI) solely and port fuel injection combined with injection during negative valve overlap (PFI & NVO-Injection).
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Combustion Operation in a GDI Engine with Poppet Valves

2012-04-16
2012-01-1118
In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1126
The spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) is widely used to expend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), as it can reduce the high heat release rate effectively while partially maintain the advantage of high thermal efficiency and low NOx emission. But as engine load increases, the SACI combustion traditionally using negative valve overlap strategy (NVO) faces the drawback of higher pumping loss and limited intake charge availability, which lead to a restricted load expansion and a finite improvement of fuel economy. In this paper, research is focused on the SACI combustion using positive valve overlap (PVO) strategy. The characteristics of SACI combustion employing PVO strategy with external exhaust gas recirculation (eEGR) are investigated. Two types of PVO strategies are analyzed and compared to explore their advantages and defects, and the rules of adjusting SACI combustion with positive valve overlap are concluded.
Journal Article

Effects of Injection Timing on CAI Operation in a 2/4-Stroke Switchable GDI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1773
A single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and commissioned on a transient engine test bed in order to study different engine cycles and combustion modes with identical hardware and operating conditions. The engine can be operated in either 4-stroke cycle or 2-stroke cycle by means of an electro-hydraulic camless system. In addition, both spark ignition and controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion can be achieved. In this paper, effects of the injection timing on different CAI combustion modes are investigated, including the residual gas trapping and exhaust gas rebreathing CAI operations in 4-stroke mode, and also 2-stroke CAI operation, with a stoichiometric air fuel ratio and homogeneous charge used throughout. The performance and emission data are presented and analysed as a function of the injection timing. Results show that the charge cooling effect on the intake flow rate is dependent upon the in-cylinder temperature at the time of injection.
Technical Paper

Experiment and Analysis of a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Operating with 2-stroke and 4-stroke Cycles of Spark Ignition and Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion

2011-08-30
2011-01-1774
Over recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many of them have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of different comparison between various operating strategies. In this work, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valvetrain system has been commissioned and used to achieve seven different operation modes, which are 4-stroke throttle-controlled SI, 4-stroke intake valve throttled SI, 4-stroke positive valve overlap SI, 4-stroke negative valve overlap CAI, 4-stroke exhaust rebreathing CAI, 2-stroke CAI and 2-stroke SI. Their performance and emission characteristics are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Continuous Load Adjustment Strategy of a Gasoline HCCI-SI Engine Fully Controlled by Exhaust Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1408
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
Journal Article

Pneumatic Regenerative Engine Braking Technology for Buses and Commercial Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2176
In this paper, a novel cost-effective air hybrid powertrain concept for buses and commercial vehicles, Brunel Regenerative Engine Braking Device (RegenEBD) technology, is presented and its performance during the braking process is analysed using the Ricardo WAVE engine simulation programme. RegenEBD is designed to convert kinetic energy into pneumatic energy in the compressed air saved in an air tank. Its operation is achieved by using a production engine braking device and a proprietary intake system design. During the braking operation, the engine switches from the firing mode to the compressor mode by keeping the intake valves from fully closed throughout the four-strokes by installing the Variable Valve Exhaust Brake (VVEB) device on the intake valves. As a result, the induced air could be compressed through the opening gap of intake valves into the air tank through the modified intake system.
Technical Paper

4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion: a comparison between Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Operation

2008-10-07
2008-36-0305
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions. Hence, it is regarded as one of the best ways to meet stringent future emissions legislation. It has however, still many problems to overcome, such as limited operating range. This combustion concept was achieved in a production type, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, in two separated tests: naturally aspirated and turbocharged. Very few modifications to the original engine were needed. These consisted basically of a new set of camshafts for the naturally aspirated test and new camshafts plus turbocharger for the test with forced induction. After previous experiments with naturally aspirated CAI operation, it was decided to investigate the capability of turbocharging for extended CAI load and speed range.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
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