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Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines

2012-07-30
The increasing concern about CO2 emissions and energy prices has led to new CO2 emission and fuel economy legislation being introduced in world regions served by the automotive industry. In response, automotive manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are developing a new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines with ultra-low emissions and high fuel efficiency. To further this development, a better understanding is needed of the combustion and pollutant formation processes in IC engines. As efficiency and emission abatement processes have reached points of diminishing returns, there is more of a need to make measurements inside the combustion chamber, where the combustion and pollutant formation processes take place. However, there is currently no good overview of how to make these measurements.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0655
In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1673
CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of CAI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap and Simultaneous Chemiluminescence Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-1103
The negative valve overlap has been shown as one of the most effective means to achieve controlled autoignition combustion in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A number of researches have been carried out on the performance and emission characteristics of CAI engines but there are still some fundamental questions that are yet to be addressed such as in-cylinder process. In the present study, a Ricardo Hydra single cylinder, four stroke optical gasoline engine was instrumented to investigate CAI combustion through negative valve overlap configuration. The effects of direct fuel injection timings and direct air injection at lambda 1 were studied by means of simultaneous in-cylinder heat release study and high speed images of complete chemiluminescence emission, OH and CHO radicals. In particular, the minor combustion process during the NVO period with various air injection quantities was studied with both heat release analysis and chemiluminescence results.
Technical Paper

Study of SI-HCCI-SI Transition on a Port Fuel Injection Engine Equipped with 4VVAS

2007-04-16
2007-01-0199
A strategy to actualize the dual-mode (SI mode and HCCI mode) operation of gasoline engine was investigated. The 4VVAS (4 variable valve actuating system), capable of independently controlling the intake and exhaust valve lifts and timings, was incorporated into a specially designed cylinder head for a single cylinder research engine and a 4VVAS-HCCI gasoline engine test bench was established. The experimental research was carried out to study the dynamic control strategies for transitions between HCCI and SI modes on the HCCI operating boundaries. Results show that equipped with the 4VVAS cylinder head, the engine can be operated in HCCI or SI mode to meet the demands of different operating conditions. 4VVAS enables the rapid and effective control over the in-cylinder residual gas, and therefore dynamic transitions between HCCI and SI can be stably achieved. It is easier to achieve transition from HCCI to SI than reversely due to the influence of thermo-inertia.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Studies of Fuel Injection and Combustion from a Narrow Cone Fuel Injector in a High Speed Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1789
Over the last decade, the high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine has made dramatic progress in both its performance and market share in the light duty vehicle market. However, with ever more stringent emission legislation to be introduced over coming years, the simultaneous reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) from the HSDI diesel engine is being intensively researched. As part of a European Union (EU) NICE integrated project, research has been carried out to investigate the fuel injection and combustion from a narrow cone fuel injector in a high speed direct injection single cylinder engine with optical access utilising a multiple injection strategy and various alternate fuels. The fuel injection process was visualised using a high speed imaging system comprising a copper vapour laser and a high speed video camera. The auto-ignition and combustion process was analysed through the chemiluminescence images of CHO and OH using an intensified CCD camera.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Low Load Limit of HCCI Combustion Process Using EIVO Strategy in a 4VVAS Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1121
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in gasoline engine. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its limited operation range. High load is limited by the tradeoff between the quantity of working charge and dilution charge. Low load is limited by the high residual gas fraction and low temperature in the cylinder. One of the highlights of HCCI combustion research at present is to expand the low load limit of HCCI combustion by developing HCCI idle operation. The main obstacle in developing HCCI idle combustion is too high residual gas fraction and low temperature to misfire in cylinder. This paper relates to a method for achieving the appropriate environment for auto-ignition at idle and the optimal tradeoff between the combustion stability and fuel consumption by employing EIVO valve strategy with an equivalent air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Effects of Active Species in Residual Gas on Auto-Ignition in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1115
Chemical reaction kinetics plays an important role in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. In order to control the combustion process, the underlying mechanism of auto-ignition must be explored, especially for the HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy, in which the residual gas affects the auto-ignition of next cycle remarkably. In this research, experimental research was carried out in a single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with an in-cylinder sampling system which mainly consists of a special spark plug, a sampling tube and a high-speed electromagnetic valve. In-cylinder charge was sampled at compression stroke and analyzed by FTIR with two types of fuel injection strategy, such as port fuel injection (PFI) solely and port fuel injection combined with injection during negative valve overlap (PFI & NVO-Injection).
Journal Article

Effects of Injection Timing on CAI Operation in a 2/4-Stroke Switchable GDI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1773
A single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and commissioned on a transient engine test bed in order to study different engine cycles and combustion modes with identical hardware and operating conditions. The engine can be operated in either 4-stroke cycle or 2-stroke cycle by means of an electro-hydraulic camless system. In addition, both spark ignition and controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion can be achieved. In this paper, effects of the injection timing on different CAI combustion modes are investigated, including the residual gas trapping and exhaust gas rebreathing CAI operations in 4-stroke mode, and also 2-stroke CAI operation, with a stoichiometric air fuel ratio and homogeneous charge used throughout. The performance and emission data are presented and analysed as a function of the injection timing. Results show that the charge cooling effect on the intake flow rate is dependent upon the in-cylinder temperature at the time of injection.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a DI Spark Ignition Engine with Throttled and Unthrottled Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1393
In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Homogeneity and Repeatability on Particulates Using the PLIF Technique in an Optical DISI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1207
The work was concerned with visualisation of the charge homogeneity and cyclic variations within the planar fuel field near the spark plug in an optical spark ignition engine fitted with an outwardly opening central direct fuel injector. Specifically, the project examined the effects of fuel type and injection settings, with the overall view to understanding some of the key mechanisms previously identified as leading to particulate formation in such engines. The three fuels studied included a baseline iso-octane, which was directly compared to two gasoline fuels containing 10% and 85% volume of ethanol respectively. The engine was a bespoke single cylinder with Bowditch style optical access through a flat piston crown. Charge stratification was studied over a wide spectrum of injection timings using the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, with additional variation in charge temperature due to injection also estimated when viable using a two-line PLIF approach.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Part-Load Performance and Emissions Analysis of SI Combustion with EIVC and Throttled Operation and CAI Combustion

2014-04-01
2014-01-1611
Internal combustion engines are subjected to part-load operation more than in full load during a typical vehicle driving cycle. The problem with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is its inherent low part-load efficiency. This problem arises due to the pumping loses that occur when the throttle closes or partially opens. One way of decreasing the pumping losses is to operate the engine lean or by adding residual gases. It is not possible to operate the engine unthrottled at very low loads due to misfire. However, the load can also be controlled by changing the intake valve closing timing - either early or late intake valve closing. Both strategies reduce the pumping loses and hence increase the efficiency. However the early intake valve closure (EIVC) can be used as mode transition from SI to CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Performance, Efficiency and Emissions between Gasoline and E85 in a Two-Stroke Poppet Valve Engine with Lean Boost CAI Operation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0827
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of High Injection Pressure Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1819
Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is an advanced combustion concept to simultaneously reduce the NOx and soot emissions whilst retaining high engine efficiencies. In order to have a better understanding of gasoline PPC operation in terms of mixture formation, combustion and emissions characteristics, the investigation was carried out at 1200 bar injection pressure using the combination of thermodynamic and optical diagnostic analysis in a single cylinder common rail fuel injection engine with optical access. The PPC operation was achieved with a combination of high dilution and higher intake charge temperature at part-load condition using primary reference fuel (PRF). Split injections of two fuel distribution strategies (50:50 and 70:30) were studied.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1818
In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.
Technical Paper

Engine Downsizing through Two-Stroke Operation in a Four-Valve GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0674
With the introduction of CO2 emissions legislation in Europe and many countries, there has been extensive research on developing high efficiency gasoline engines by means of the downsizing technology. Under this approach the engine operation is shifted towards higher load regions where pumping and friction losses have a reduced effect, so improved efficiency is achieved with smaller displacement engines. However, to ensure the same full load performance of larger engines the charge density needs to be increased, which raises concerns about abnormal combustion and excessive in-cylinder pressure. In order to overcome these drawbacks a four-valve direct injection gasoline engine was modified to operate in the two-stroke cycle. Hence, the same torque achieved in an equivalent four-stroke engine could be obtained with one half of the mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load Ethanol Dual-Fuel Combustion using Single and Split Diesel Injections on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0778
The use of two different fuels to control the in-cylinder charge reactivity of compression ignition engines has been shown as an effective way to achieve low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions. The port fuel injection of ethanol on a common rail, direct injected diesel engine increases this reactivity gradient. The objective of this study is to experimentally characterize the controllability, performance, and emissions of ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion in a single cylinder heavy-duty engine. Three different diesel injection strategies were investigated: a late split, an early split, and an early single injection. The experiments were performed at low load, where the fuel conversion efficiency is typically reduced due to incomplete combustion. Ethanol substitution ratios varied from 44-80% on an energy input basis.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Potential of Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas/Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0790
Natural Gas (NG) is currently a cost effective substitute for diesel fuel in the Heavy-Duty (HD) diesel transportation sector. Dual-Fuel engines substitute NG in place of diesel for decreased NOx and soot emissions, but suffer from high engine-out methane (CH4) emissions. Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion (PDFC) is one method of decreasing methane emissions and simultaneously improving engine efficiency while maintaining low NOx and soot levels. PDFC utilizes an early diesel injection to adjust the flammability of the premixed charge, promoting more uniform burning of methane. Engine experiments were carried out using a NG and diesel HD single cylinder research engine. Key speeds and loads were explored in order to determine where PDFC is effective at reducing engine-out methane emissions over Conventional Dual-Fuel which uses a single diesel injection for ignition.
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