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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Studies of CAI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap and Simultaneous Chemiluminescence Analysis

The negative valve overlap has been shown as one of the most effective means to achieve controlled autoignition combustion in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A number of researches have been carried out on the performance and emission characteristics of CAI engines but there are still some fundamental questions that are yet to be addressed such as in-cylinder process. In the present study, a Ricardo Hydra single cylinder, four stroke optical gasoline engine was instrumented to investigate CAI combustion through negative valve overlap configuration. The effects of direct fuel injection timings and direct air injection at lambda 1 were studied by means of simultaneous in-cylinder heat release study and high speed images of complete chemiluminescence emission, OH and CHO radicals. In particular, the minor combustion process during the NVO period with various air injection quantities was studied with both heat release analysis and chemiluminescence results.
Technical Paper

Investigation of CAI Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap and Enlargement of CAI Operating Range

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was investigated in a Ricardo E6 single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved by employing positive valve overlap in combination with variable compression ratios and intake air temperatures. The combustion characteristics and emissions were studied in order to understand the major advantages and drawbacks of CAI combustion with positive valve overlap. The enlargement of the CAI operational region was obtained by boosting intake air and adding external EGR. The lean-boosted operation elevated the range of CAI combustion to the higher load region, whilst the use of external EGR allowed the engine to operate with CAI combustion in the region between boosted and N/A CAI operational ranges. The results were analyzed to investigate combustion characteristics, performance and emissions of the boosted CAI operations.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Combustion Operation in a GDI Engine with Poppet Valves

In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Intake Port and Pent-Roof Structures on Reversed Tumble Generation of a Poppet-Valved Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

In order to minimize short-circuiting of the intake charge in the poppet-valved 2-stroke engine, measures are taken to generate reversed tumble in the cylinder. In this study, five different types of intake ports and three types of pent-roof geometries were designed and analysed of their ability to generate and maintain reversed tumble flows by means of CFD simulation for their intake processes on a steady flow rig. Their flow characteristics were then assessed and compared to that of the vertical top-entry ports. Results show that the side-entry port designs can achieve comparatively high tumble intensity. The addition of flow deflectors inside the side-entry ports does not have much effect on the reversed tumble ratio. The top-entry ports have the highest flow coefficient among all the intake ports examined as well as producing strong reversed tumble. It is also found that the pent-roof at a wider angle helps to strengthen the tumble intensity due to increased air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a DI Spark Ignition Engine with Throttled and Unthrottled Operations

In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Homogeneity and Repeatability on Particulates Using the PLIF Technique in an Optical DISI Engine

The work was concerned with visualisation of the charge homogeneity and cyclic variations within the planar fuel field near the spark plug in an optical spark ignition engine fitted with an outwardly opening central direct fuel injector. Specifically, the project examined the effects of fuel type and injection settings, with the overall view to understanding some of the key mechanisms previously identified as leading to particulate formation in such engines. The three fuels studied included a baseline iso-octane, which was directly compared to two gasoline fuels containing 10% and 85% volume of ethanol respectively. The engine was a bespoke single cylinder with Bowditch style optical access through a flat piston crown. Charge stratification was studied over a wide spectrum of injection timings using the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, with additional variation in charge temperature due to injection also estimated when viable using a two-line PLIF approach.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Part-Load Performance and Emissions Analysis of SI Combustion with EIVC and Throttled Operation and CAI Combustion

Internal combustion engines are subjected to part-load operation more than in full load during a typical vehicle driving cycle. The problem with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is its inherent low part-load efficiency. This problem arises due to the pumping loses that occur when the throttle closes or partially opens. One way of decreasing the pumping losses is to operate the engine lean or by adding residual gases. It is not possible to operate the engine unthrottled at very low loads due to misfire. However, the load can also be controlled by changing the intake valve closing timing - either early or late intake valve closing. Both strategies reduce the pumping loses and hence increase the efficiency. However the early intake valve closure (EIVC) can be used as mode transition from SI to CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Performance, Efficiency and Emissions between Gasoline and E85 in a Two-Stroke Poppet Valve Engine with Lean Boost CAI Operation

Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load Ethanol Dual-Fuel Combustion using Single and Split Diesel Injections on a Heavy-Duty Engine

The use of two different fuels to control the in-cylinder charge reactivity of compression ignition engines has been shown as an effective way to achieve low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions. The port fuel injection of ethanol on a common rail, direct injected diesel engine increases this reactivity gradient. The objective of this study is to experimentally characterize the controllability, performance, and emissions of ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion in a single cylinder heavy-duty engine. Three different diesel injection strategies were investigated: a late split, an early split, and an early single injection. The experiments were performed at low load, where the fuel conversion efficiency is typically reduced due to incomplete combustion. Ethanol substitution ratios varied from 44-80% on an energy input basis.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Potential of Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas/Diesel Engine

Natural Gas (NG) is currently a cost effective substitute for diesel fuel in the Heavy-Duty (HD) diesel transportation sector. Dual-Fuel engines substitute NG in place of diesel for decreased NOx and soot emissions, but suffer from high engine-out methane (CH4) emissions. Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion (PDFC) is one method of decreasing methane emissions and simultaneously improving engine efficiency while maintaining low NOx and soot levels. PDFC utilizes an early diesel injection to adjust the flammability of the premixed charge, promoting more uniform burning of methane. Engine experiments were carried out using a NG and diesel HD single cylinder research engine. Key speeds and loads were explored in order to determine where PDFC is effective at reducing engine-out methane emissions over Conventional Dual-Fuel which uses a single diesel injection for ignition.
Technical Paper

A Study of Turbulent Flame Development with Ethanol Fuels in an Optical Spark Ignition Engine

The work was concerned with experimental study of the turbulent flame development process of ethanol fuels in an optically accessed spark ignition research engine. The fuels were evaluated in a single cylinder engine equipped with full-bore overhead optical access and operated at typical stoichiometric part-load conditions. High-speed natural light (or chemiluminescence) imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement and analysis were used to understand the fundamental influence of both low and high ethanol content on turbulent flame propagation and subsequent mass burning. Causes for the difference in cyclic variations were evaluated in detail, with comparisons made to existing burning velocity correlations where available.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke Gasoline Engine with Reduced Valve Lift Operations

To achieve homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in the range of low speeds and loads, special camshafts with low intake/exhaust cam lift and short intake/exhaust cam duration were designed. The camshafts were mounted in a Ricardo Hydra four-stroke single cylinder port fuel injection gasoline engine. HCCI combustion was achieved by controlling the amount of trapped residuals from previous cycle through negative valve overlap. The results show that indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) depends on valve timings, engine speeds and lambda. Early exhaust valve closing (EVC) timings result in high residual fractions in the cylinder and low air mass sucked into the cylinder. As a result, combustion duration increases, IMEP and peak pressure decrease. However, pumping losses decrease. High engine speed has the similar effect on HCCI combustion characteristics as early EVC timings do. But inlet valve opening timings have slight effect on IMEP compared to EVC timings.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion in a GDI Engine with Single and Split Fuel Injections

A multi-cycle three-dimensional CFD engine simulation programme has been developed and applied to analyze the Controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion, also known as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), in a direct injection gasoline engine. CAI operation was achieved through the negative valve overlap method by means of a set of low lift camshafts. The effect of single injection timing on combustion phasing and underlying physical and chemical processes involved was examined through a series of analytical studies using the multi-cycle 3D engine simulation programme. The analyses showed that early injection into the trapped burned gases of a lean-burn mixture during the negative valve overlap period had a large effect on combustion phasing, due to localized heat release and the production of chemically reactive species. As the injection was retarded to the intake stroke, the charge cooling effect tended to slow down the autoignition process.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the Effect of Injection Timing on Stoichiometric and Lean CAI Operations in a 4-Stroke GDI Engine

The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) can be achieved by the negative valve overlap method in conjunction with direct injection in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A multi-cycle 3D engine simulation program has been developed and applied to study the effect of injection timing on CAI operations with lean and stoichiometric mixtures. The combustion models used in the present study are based on the modified Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. Based on the parametric studies on injection timing and equivalence ratio, the major difference between stoichiometric and lean-burn CAI operations is due to the fact that fuel injections take place during the negative valve overlap period.