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Technical Paper

Study on Spatial Characteristics of the In-Cylinder Flow Field in an I.C. Engine Using PIV

1998-10-19
982632
In-cylinder flow characteristics in a four-stroke diesel engine were studied experimentally by instantaneous measurements of swirl and squish flow velocity distribution with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The triple-exposed PIV films were interrogated on a self-made system to get the velocity distribution. The measured velocities were analyzed by spatially high-pass and low-pass filtering techniques. Vorticity distributions were also calculated using the measured data. As results, vortex structure of the flow field was clearly visualized. Spatially averaged in-cylinder flow energy was found decaying at high rate but the less-scaled flow components at much lower rate. Clearly visualized squish and reverse squish movements around the top dead center (TDC) during the compression stroke were found strongly affecting the swirl flow field. making the in-bowl flow energy increased.
Technical Paper

Diaphragm Injection Carburettor (DIC) for Stratified-Scavenging of Small Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

1996-02-01
960364
A simple diaphragm injection carburettor (DIC) is developed and patented by the author in the paper. The principle is that, as the function of the diaphragm mechanism, the pressure difference between two sides of the metering hole equals the vacuum of the Venturi, so it can realize the pressurized fuel metering, by the fuel metering hole and vacuum from the Venturi, and fuel injection. The fuel is injected into the feed port and mixes with the small fraction of air through the port, the main port of fresh air from the crankcase is injected to the cylinder with the scavenging organized so that a separating layer is created between the exhaust and feed port, it can substantially reduce short-circuit. According to the characteristics of low short-circuit at low delivery ratio, the low load fuel supply system of conventional carburettor is preserved and combined with DIC which functions at high load operation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of a New Type Direct-injection Stratified- Charge Combustion System for Gasoline Engines

1996-05-01
961150
A new type direct-injection stratified-charge combustion system for gasoline engines is developed by the authors. In the system, gasoline is directly injected into a cylinder near the end of compression stroke by a nozzle with the injection holes unequally spaced on its tip. The angles among sprays in the vicinity of spark plug are small, and become larger downstream along the direction of air swirl motion. Therefore the circularly concentration stratification form rich to lean of air-fuel mixture is mechanically realized to ensure the reliable ignition and smooth flame propagation in the inhomogeneous mixture after sparking. The selection of main parameters of the system, the performance and the combustion characteristics of the engine after optimization of those parameters are introduced in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Automotive Crashworthiness Design Optimization Based on Efficient Global Optimization Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1029
Finite element (FE) models are commonly used for automotive crashworthiness design. However, even with increasing speed of computers, the FE-based simulation is still too time-consuming when simulating the complex dynamic process such as vehicle crashworthiness. To improve the computational efficiency, the response surface model, as the surrogate of FE model, has been widely used for crashworthiness optimization design. Before introducing the surrogate model into the design optimization, the surrogate should satisfy the accuracy requirements. However, the bias of surrogate model is introduced inevitably. Meanwhile, it is also very difficult to decide how many samples are needed when building the high fidelity surrogate model for the system with strong nonlinearity. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, the application of a kind of surrogate optimization method called Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) is proposed to conduct the crashworthiness design optimization.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Samples Size Effects on Hybrid Surrogate Model Component Surrogates for Crashworthiness Design

2018-04-03
2018-01-1028
Surrogate model based design optimization has been widely adopted in automotive industry. Hybrid surrogate model with multiple component surrogates is considered to be a better choice when simulating highly non-linear responses in vehicle crashworthiness analysis. Currently, the number of component surrogates has to be decided before-hand when constructing of a hybrid surrogate model. This paper conducts a comparative study on the performances of three popular hybrid modeling methods including heuristic computation strategy, and two kinds of optimal weighted surrogates. The effects of samples size on the number of individual surrogates that should be included into the final hybrid surrogate models for crashworthiness responses are investigated. Different hybrid modeling techniques and multiple validation criteria are evaluated. Some observations and conclusions on the selection of component surrogates in hybrid surrogate modeling are given in the end.
Technical Paper

Cycle Resolved Combustion and Pre-Ignition Diagnostic Employing Ion Current in a PFI Boosted SI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0881
An ion current sensor is employed in a 4 cylinder production SI engine for combustion diagnosis during combustion process, knock, and low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) detection. The results show that the ion current peak value and ion current peak phase have strong correlation with the cylinder pressure and pressure peak phase respectively. The COV of ion current integral value is greater than the COV of IMEP at the same operating condition. Results show that the ion current signal is sensitive to different lambdas. Using ion current signal, the knock in any given cylinder can be detected. Importantly, the ion sensor successfully detected the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) about more than 20 °CA before spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Power Matching and Control Strategy of Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Car

2010-10-25
2010-01-2195
In this paper, based on the plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle development project, the vehicle technology solutions and the match of power system parameters were analyzed. The vehicle control strategies were identified and optimized according to plug-in hybrid vehicle features. The plug-in series hybrid, rule-based logic threshold switching control strategy, charge depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode are chosen according to the key factors, such as the environment, performance requirements, technical requirements and cost. And then the structure and model of vehicle control strategy were established to carry out vehicle energy management and power system control. The parameter selection, electric drive system matching, energy storage system design based on the requirement of vehicle performance, system architecture and control strategy are presented.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels under High Injection Pressure with a Common Rail System

2010-10-25
2010-01-2268
Biodiesel has been paid more and more attention as a renewable fuel due to some excellent properties such as renewable, high cetane number, ultralow sulfur content, no aromatic hydrocarbon, high flash point, low CO2 emission when compared with diesel. While others physical properties like high viscosity, high surface tension, big density and bad volatility would spoil the spray characteristics of biodiesel fuel, which will affect the thermal efficiency when running in diesel engine. Accompanied with constant volume vessel and high speed video camera system, a high pressure common rail system, which could provide an injection pressure of 180 MPa, is used to investigate the characteristics of jatropha curcas biodiesel, palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The effects of injection pressures and ambient densities on spray characteristics of these fuels are studied.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Control Strategy for Engine Start-stop in a Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-10-25
2010-01-2214
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide significantly improvement in fuel economy over conventional vehicles as well as reductions in greenhouse gas and petroleum. Numerous recent reports regarding control strategy, power train configuration, driving pattern, all electric range (AER) and their effects on fuel consumption and electric energy consumption of PHEVs are reported. Meanwhile, the control strategy for engine start-stop and mileage between recharging events from the electricity grid also has an important influence on the petroleum displacement potential of PHEVs, but few reports are published. In this paper, a detailed simulation model is set up for a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle (PSHEV) employing the AVL CRUISE. The model was employed to predict the AER of the baseline PSHEV using rule-based logical threshold switching control strategy.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Factors Affecting Heated Wall Impinging Characteristics of SCR Spray

2011-04-12
2011-01-1311
Many studies show that under diesel engine operating conditions, SCR reductant sprays will impinge on the wall of exhaust pipes. In order to understand this impinging process of SCR reductant spray, and to analyze what factors affect it, a test bench was set up by means of high speed video camera. At atmospheric pressure, SCR spray was injected on a heated metal wall, the impacts of wall temperature, injection pressure, injection height and angle on developing characteristics of SCR reductant spray after impinging on the heated wall have been researched and analyzed. The results show that the heated wall temperature has a great impact on the spray developing process, when wall temperature is lower than 405K, after water evaporated the crystallized urea will remain on the wall to block exhaust pipes. When wall temperature is higher, the atomization and evaporation of SCR reductant spray will be better, and the hydrolysis process of urea will be faster.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics and Wall-impingement Process with Different Piston Tops for the Multi-hole Injector of DISI Gasoline Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1222
Spray characteristics and spray wall-impingement events are the key factors for the direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, affecting fuel/air mixture preparation and its combustion process. Thus, the spray characteristics of a multi-hole injector for DISI engines, such as spray tip penetration and spray cone angle were investigated in an optical chamber employing the high-speed shadow photography. Furthermore, the effects of the injection pressure, ambient pressure and piston top shape on the impinging spray development were studied in the optical chamber, when the impinging distance is 26.1 mm, corresponding to about 60 CAD ATDC. In addition, the SMD and wall film thickness of the spray impinging on the piston top were studied by means of CFD technique. The results showed that the ambient pressure had the greater effect on the changes of the spray penetration and spray cone angle than the injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Stratified Mixture Formation and Combustion Process for Wall-guided Stratified-charge DISI Engines with Different Piston Bowls by Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0595
This paper presents the simulation of in-cylinder stratified mixture formation, spray motion, combustion and emissions in a four-stroke and four valves direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine with a pent-roof combustion chamber by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The Extended Coherent Flame Combustion Model (ECFM), implemented in the AVL-Fire codes, was employed. The key parameters of spray characteristics related to computing settings, such as skew angle, cone angle and flow per pulse width with experimental measurements were compared. The numerical analysis is mainly focused on how the tumble flow ratio and geometry of piston bowls affect the motion of charge/spray in-cylinder, the formation of stratified mixture and the combustion and emissions (NO and CO₂) for the wall-guided stratified-charge spark-ignition DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Material Compatibilities of Biodiesels with Elastomers, Metals and Plastics in a Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2799
The effects of biodiesel on the swelling of the elastomers and plastics and the corrosion of metals are studied by the immersion tests. The results indicate that biodiesels make little corrosion effect on aluminum, steel and little swelling impact on plastics, but a significant corrosion may be taken place on cooper and brass for some sourced biodiesels. For nitrile-butadiene rubber, the variation of swelling properties in biodiesels is slightly higher than that in diesel. For the non-diesel-resistant elatomers, the variation of swelling properties is lower than those in diesel. The production process and biodiesel source have an influence on the result of elastomer swelling and corrosion. The relationship between the impact of biodiesel on materials and biodiesels properties are also discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crevice HC Mechanism Based on the Transient HC Test Data and the Double Zone Combustion Model

2008-06-23
2008-01-1652
The effectiveness of after-treatment systems depends on the exhaust gas temperature, which is low during cold-start. As a result, Euro III, Euro IV and FTP75 require that the emissions tests include exhaust from the beginning of cold start. It is proved that 50%∼80% of HC and CO emissions are emitted during the cold start and the amount of unburned fuel from the crevices during starting is much higher than that under warmed engine conditions. The piston crevices is the most part of combustion chamber crevices, and results of mathematical simulations show that the piston crevice contribution to HC emissions is expected to increase during cold engine operation. Based on the transient HC test data and the double zone combustion model, this paper presents the study of the crevice HC Mechanism of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle.
Technical Paper

Compatibility of Biodiesels and Their Blends with Typical Rubbers and Copperish Metals

2010-04-12
2010-01-0476
The swelling of ‘O’ rings of 3 typical rubbers (NBR, FKM, EPDM) and the corrosion of 2 typical copperish metal pieces (Copper, Brass) were investigated. The fuel samples included 14 kinds of biodiesels, 1 kind of diesel, and 4 kinds of blends respectively for 2 kinds of biodiesels. The changes in mass and size of ‘O’ rings were measured with an electronic balance and a vernier caliper. The surface corrosion of copperish metals was recorded with photos. It was found that the swelling of NBR in pure biodiesels were generally larger than those in diesel. The mass and size of FKM almost did not change in both pure biodiesels and diesel. The swelling of EPDM became less in pure biodiesels than that in diesel. When the blend ratios of biodiesels were less than 10%, the change rates in mass, inner diameter and section diameter of NBR, FKM and EPDM were similar between blended fuels and diesel.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Optimization during Engine Quick Start by Means of Cycle-by-Cycle Control Strategy for HEV Application

2009-11-02
2009-01-2718
Engine-off strategy are popular used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) for fuel saving. The engine of an HEV will start and stop frequently according to the road condition. In order to obtain excellent fuel economy and emissions performance, the fuel injection during engine quick start should be optimized. In this paper, the characteristic of mixture formation and the HC emissions at the first 5 cycles which contribute the most HCs were investigated. After the analysis of mixture preparation during start process, the HC emissions during engine quick start were optimized by means of cycle-by-cycle fuel injection control strategy. The fuel mixture concentration during start-up process fluctuates more dramatically under hot start condition. Typically, the mixture at 4th and 5th cycle is over-riched. Based on the original engine calibration, the fuel injection at the initial 5 cycles was optimized respectively.
Technical Paper

Misfiring Control in Current Cycle at Engine Start Employing Ion Sensing Technology

2009-11-02
2009-01-2713
In this paper a method of misfiring control in current cycle at engine start is presented. With this novel method, the high HC emissions of gasoline engine employed in traditional or hybrid electrical vehicles will be avoided. By the feedback of ion current signal, misfire phenomenon is identified within 30 degrees crank angle after spark plug ignited. Then, the ignition coil will be recharged and the plug sparked again to promote air fuel mixture oxidation and deplete the unburned hydrocarbon produces in exhaust gas. On the other hand, too late ignition will not always result in normal combustion, a kind of reaction similar with slow oxidation also occurs in such case.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Knock under DI-HCCI Combustion Mode with Ethanol/Gasoline Mixed Fuel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0544
Gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) can achieve high efficiency and extremely low NOX emissions. However, the working condition range of HCCI is limited by knock occurring during engine operation. To achieve an expanded HCCI working condition range, it is necessary to explore a method predicting knock cases accurately to avoid knock occurring. Based on a DI-HCCI engine with ethanol/gasoline mixed fuel, the knock cases under different conditions have been investigated. In-cylinder pressure signals are used to identify the knock cases and the knock oscillations are extracted with fast Fourier transform (FFT). The effects of the ethanol proportion in the fuel and air/fuel ratio on the characteristics of knock have been studied. The results have shown that the knock parameters, such as maximum frequency, start point angle and the duration, have close relationship with the knock intensity.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Three-way Catalyst during Quickly Start-up Process in a PFI Engine for HEV Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-1325
The characteristics of three-way-catalyst during engine start process were investigated based on a simulated start/stop test system for HEV application. Although the catalyst has already reached its light-off temperature, the conversion efficiency is poor during engine start process due to the deviation of lambda from stoichiometric. The high concentration hydrocarbon emission spike can be stored by catalyst substrate temporarily, then it is released. This dynamic process decreases the conversion efficiency for the following exhaust hydrocarbon emission. When the initial temperature of catalyst substrate before engine start increased from 150°C to 400°C, the conversion efficiency for both the hydrocarbon and NO are increased.
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