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Technical Paper

The Effect of Forced Cool Down on Cold Start Test Repeatability

Increasing the number of cold-start engine cycles which could be run in any one day would greatly improve the productivity of an engine test facility. However with the introduction of forced cooling procedures there is the inherent risk that test-to-test repeatability will be affected. Therefore an investigation into the effects caused by forced cooling on fuel consumption and the temperature distribution through the engine and fluids is essential. Testing was completed on a 2.4 litre diesel engine running a cold NEDC. The test facility utilises a basic ventilation system, which draws in external ambient air, which is forced past the engine and then drawn out of the cell. This can be supplemented with the use of a spot cooling fan. The forced cool down resulted in a much quicker cool down which was further reduced with spot cooling, in the region of 25% reduction.
Technical Paper

Actively Controlled Cooling Jets

A proof-of-concept study has been undertaken to demonstrate the use and potential benefits of actively controlled coolant jets in an IC engine cooling gallery simulator. Results have shown that substantial reductions in coolant volumes are possible and that the control of the liquid/metal surface temperature can be achieved within +/- 0.2°C in response to transient heat flux conditions.
Technical Paper

Front End Auxiliary Drive (FEAD) Configurations Focusing on CO2 Benefits

An experimental investigation, using a Design of Experiments approach, has sought to quantify the potential CO2 savings that could be made by the electrification of certain mechanical devices as part of the Front End Auxiliary Drive (FEAD) on a 2.4 litre DI diesel engine. The experiments considered the electrification of the cooling fan; power assisted steering system, and the vacuum pump. A number of different build configurations have been evaluated on a dynamic testbed over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The overall conclusion is that the move towards electrification of the devices listed would result in a 6-7% saving in CO2 over the NEDC. These benefits however, need to be considered alongside other issues such as increased on-cost, more control complexity and reliability implications of adopting electrically driven devices.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Controllable Engine Cooling System to Reduce NOx Emissions in Diesel Engines

This paper investigates the potential for reduced NOx emissions from the integration of thermal factors into the Diesel engine calibration process. NOx emissions from Diesel engines have been shown to be sensitive to engine operating temperature, which is directly related to the level of cooling applied to the engine, in addition to the main engine operating parameters such as injection timing and EGR ratio. Experimental engine characterization of the main engine parameters against coolant temperature set point shows that engine cooling settings can extend the feasible lower limits of fuel consumption and emissions output from Diesel engine. With the adoption of an integrated calibration methodology including engine cooling set point, NOx emissions can be improved by up to 30% at crucial high speed/load operating points seen in the NEDC drive cycle with a minor reduction in fuel economy and small increase in CO output.
Technical Paper

On-Vehicle Controllable Cooling Jets

A study has been undertaken to demonstrate the use and potential benefits of actively controlled coolant jets in a vehicle. Results have shown that active control of cooling jets has the potential to regulate the temperature of thermally critical areas of the cylinder head, in this case the exhaust valve bridge. In addition the temperature gradient across the head from the exhaust valves to the inlet valves is directly influenced. These capabilities offer improved control of the combustion process and enhanced durability. Furthermore the system allows heat to be rejected at much lower overall coolant flow rates than with a conventional arrangement. The technique relies on an adequate supply of coolant at a lower temperature than that within the engine and on the availability of a suitable measurement technology within the thermally critical region. Unlike passive precision cooling the active jets allow optimization of the cooling at all engine speed / load points.
Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling Systems for Passenger Vehicles

Electric coolant pumps for IC engines are under development by a number of suppliers. They offer packaging and flexibility benefits to vehicle manufacturers. Their full potential will not be realised, however, unless an integrated approach is taken to the entire cooling system. The paper describes such a system comprising an advanced electric pump with the necessary flow controls and a supervisory strategy running on an automotive microprocessor. The hardware and control strategy are described together with the simulation developed to allow its calibration and validation before fitting in a B/C class European passenger car. Simulation results are presented which show the system to be controllable and responsive to deliver optimum fuel consumption, emissions and driver comfort.
Technical Paper

A Review of Precision Engine Cooling

Although successful “precision cooled” prototype engines have been demonstrated, the design of most mainstream coolant jackets has evolved only cautiously, and lacked this major change in approach. The achievements and potential of precision cooling are reviewed, along with an extension into nucleate boiling based heat transfer. It is demonstrated that ideas for advanced “external” cooling systems with low flowrates are in fact extremely compatible with the “internal” precision engine cooling philosophy, and in combination promise even larger benefits.
Technical Paper

“Nucleate Boiling Investigations and the Effects of Surface Roughness”

The findings presented in this paper are part of a long term project aimed at raising the science of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling galleries. Initial work has been undertaken by the authors and an experimental facility is able to simulate different sizes of coolant passages. External heat is applied and data for the forced convective, nucleate boiling and transition or critical heat flux (CHF) regimes has been obtained. The results highlighted in this paper attempt to quantify the effects of cooling passage surface roughness on the nucleate boiling regime. Tests have been conducted using aluminium test pieces with surface finishes described as smooth, intermediate and as-cast. It has been found that the as-cast surface increases the heat flux density in the nucleate boiling region over that of the smooth and intermediate surfaces.