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Technical Paper

Stratified and Homogeneous Charge Operation for the Direct Injection Gasoline Engine - High Power with Low Fuel Consumption and Emissions

1997-02-24
970543
This paper describes an experimental investigation to explore and optimise the performance, economy and emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine. Building on previous experimental direct injection investigations at Ricardo, a single cylinder engine has been designed to accommodate common rail electronically controlled fuel injection equipment together with appropriate port configuration and combustion chamber geometry. Experimental data is presented on the effects of chamber geometry, charge motion and fuel injection characteristics on octane requirement, lean limit, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions at typical automotive engine operating conditions. The configuration is shown to achieve stable combustion at air/fuel ratios in excess of 50:1 enabling unthrottled operation over a wide operating range. Strategies are demonstrated to control engine out emissions to levels approaching conventional port injected gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Understanding the CCVS Stratified EGR Combustion System

1996-02-01
960837
A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a port injected four-valve gasoline engine. This system, known as Combustion Control through Vortex Stratification (CCVS), has shown greatly improved fuel consumption at a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Both burnrate (10-90% burn angle) and HC emissions are almost completely insensitive to EGR up to best economy EGR rate. Cycle to cycle combustion variation is also excellent with a coefficient of variation of IMEP of less than 2% at best economy EGR rate. This paper describes a research programme aimed at gaining a better understanding of the in-cylinder processes in this combustion system.
Technical Paper

Improving the NOx/Fuel Economy Trade-Off for Gasoline Engines with the CCVS Combustion System

1994-03-01
940482
A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) in order to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a single cylinder manifold injected pent-roof four-valve gasoline engine. This system has been given the generic name Combustion Control by Vortex Stratification (CCVS). Preliminary research has shown that greatly improved fuel consumption is achievable at stoichiometric conditions compared to a conventional version of the same engine whilst retaining ULEV NOx levels. Simultaneously the combustion system has shown inherently low HC emissions compared to homogeneous EGR engines. A production viable variable air motion system has also been assessed which increases the effectiveness of the stratification whilst allowing full load refinement and retaining high performance.
Technical Paper

Development Experience of a Multi-Cylinder CCVS Engine

1995-02-01
950165
A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a multi-cylinder port injected four-valve gasoline engine. This system, dubbed Combustion Control through Vortex Stratification (CCVS), has shown greatly improved fuel consumption at stoichiometric conditions whilst retaining ULEV compatible engine-out NOx and HC emission levels. A production feasible variable air motion system has also been assessed which enables stratification at part load with no loss of performance or refinement at full load.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Development Experience of a Stratified Charge Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

1996-10-01
962014
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation has been used to investigate the fuel air mixing regimes of an open chamber gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Acceptable homogeneous stoichiometric charge operation was predicted by the CFD simulation and confirmed by data from engine experiments with early injection timing. The simulation also predicted that late injection timing would be inoperable with the open chamber geometry employed. This was confirmed by injection timing experiments on the test engine. Subsequent initial engine development using a different engine geometry with top-entry inlet ports and a piston containing a spherical bowl has demonstrated very stable combustion with an unthrottled late injection strategy. The use of recycled exhaust gas (EGR) is demonstrated to produce better emissions and fuel consumption than purely lean operation. The effect of throttling is found to provide emissions improvements at the expense of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development Experience of a Poppet-Valved Two-Stroke Flagship Engine

1992-02-01
920778
The gasoline-fuelled direct injection poppet-valved two-stroke engine described in (1) has been built in single cylinder form and tested to evaluate the potential of this concept as a passenger car powerplant. Development of the combustion and scavenge system is described. Following development, the engine produced a specific power output of 90 kW/litre at 5000 rev/min, with a peak torque of 200 Nm/litre at 2000-2500 rev/min. HC emissions were maintained in the range 3-15 g/kWh over the majority of the engine operating range and NOx emissions in the load range used in the FTP drive cycle were less than 3 g/kWh. Part load fuel consumption under steady state conditions was 8% lower than for a stoichiometric four-stroke engine sized for equal power output.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Powertrain (IPT) Model - Stage One

2000-03-06
2000-01-0864
The need to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions while meeting future emission legislation has lead to the investigation of alternative engines, transmissions, aftertreatment and control strategies. The evaluation of alternative configurations at the concept stage requires vehicle drive cycle simulation tools, which include the following features: Fast run-time Alternative transmission models Cold start effects on fuel consumption and emissions modeled After-treatment models. This paper describes the development of a MATLAB/SIMULINKTM - based drive cycle simulation model meeting these requirements. The paper includes validation data comparing fuel consumption, engine-out and tailpipe emissions for a direct injection gasoline vehicle with a stoichiometric/lean switching strategy and lean NOx catalyst.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Engine Operation with Twin Mechanical Variable Lift (TMVL) Valvetrain Stage 1: SI and CAI Combustion with Port Fuel Injection

2005-04-11
2005-01-0752
This paper describes the results of the first stage of an integrated experimental and modelling programme on a gasoline engine with Twin Mechanical Variable Lift (TMVL) capability. The engine used for this work was a modified version of a 4 cylinder, 2.0 litre BMW engine. The modified engine has the “Valvetronic” continuously variable lift valvetrain on both the inlet and exhaust valves and dual independent cam phasers with 60 crankshaft degrees of phasing authority. The Valvetronic system allows continuous variation of the valve lift from a minimum of 0.25 mm to a maximum of 9.7 mm.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Stroke/Four-Stroke Switching Gasoline Engine - The 2/4SIGHT Concept

2005-04-11
2005-01-1137
The pursuit of flexibility is a recurring theme in engine design and development. Engines that are able to switch between the two-stroke operating cycle and four-stroke operation promise a great leap in flexibility. Such 2S-4S engines could then continuously select the optimum operating mode - including HCCI/CAI combustion - for fuel efficiency, emissions or specific output. With recent developments in valvetrain technology, advanced boosting devices, direct fuel injection and engine control, the 2S-4S engine is an increasingly real prospect. The authors have undertaken a comprehensive feasibility study for 2S-4S gasoline engines. This study has encompassed concept and detailed design, design analysis, one-dimensional gas dynamics simulation, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, and vehicle simulation. The resulting 2/4SIGHT concept engine is a 1.04 l in-line three-cylinder engine producing 230 Nm and 85 kW.
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