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Technical Paper

Ignition Delays for Iso - octane: Measurement Using a Rapid Compression Machine and Prediction Using a Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model

Ignition delays were measured for iso-octane using a rapid compression machine at an equivalence ratio of 1, initial pressure of 300 Torr, and post-compression oxygen density of [O2]Vo=1.0, where Vo is 22,400 cm3/mole. The post-compression temperature were varied by changing specific heat ratio of mixture: this was done by blending different inert gases, i.e., CO2, N2, and Ar. Negative temperature coefficient region was observed between 750 K and 850 K. Two-stage ignition delay characteristic was observed below 830 K. Overall experimental results were found to be in good qualitative agreement with those by Shell's Thornton Research Center. The ignition delays predicted by MIT 19 reaction reduced chemical kinetic model were compared with those from the current experiment. In the model calculation, the measured pressure was fed into the model to calculate the core temperature before there is appreciable heat release due to chemical reaction.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer in the End Gas

This paper describes experimental and theoritical studies of a turbulent combustion bomb. We find a correlation between heat transfer to the wall and the Initial turbulence intensity. Wall temperature and pressure measurements were made for three levels of initial turbulence. All tests were performed with an equivalence ratio of 1.0, and the turbulence intensity was controlled by varying the time delay between mixture intake and spark ignition. Assuming one-dimensional conduction, the surface heat flux was computed from the wall temperature data. Gas temperatures were computed from the pressure data assuming isentropic compression. Based on turbulent velocity measurements made in previous studies, these results permitted a correlation of Nusselt number with turbulent Reynolds number. Using this correlation, we estimate the heat transfer in the end gas and its effect on the gas temperature.
Technical Paper

Early Flame Development and Burning Rates in Spark Ignition Engines and Their Cyclic Variability

Experiments by Gatowski and Heywood have been analyzed to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on early flame development and burning rates in a square piston premixed spark-ignition engine. Flame growth was observed using high speed Schlieren photography and simultaneous pressure records were obtained using piezo-electric transducers. To study the effects of in-cylinder gas motion several combinations of shrouded and unshrouded inlet valves, and flat and stepped pistons were used. Spark position was also varied. The analysis supports the wrinkled laminar flame model of turbulent flame structure in spark-ignition engines. It also suggests that cycle-by-cycle variations in the growth rate and location of the flame kernel at very early times are the major cause of cycle-by-cycle pressure variations in spark-ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Effects of Air and Coolant Temperature, Deposits, Spark Timing and Speed on Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

The prediction of knock onset in spark-ignition engines requires a chemical model for the autoignition of the hydrocarbon fuel-air mixture, and a description of the unburned end-gas thermal state. Previous studies have shown that a reduced chemistry model developed by Keck et al. adequately predicts the initiation of autoignition. However, the combined effects of heat transfer and compression on the state of the end gas have not been thoroughly investigated. The importance of end-gas heat transfer was studied with the objective of improving the ability of our knock model to predict knock onset over a wide range of engine conditions. This was achieved through changing the thermal environment of the end gas by either varying the inlet air temperature or the coolant temperature. Results show that there is significant heating of the in-cylinder charge during intake and a substantial part of the compression process.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Wankel Engine Performance

A model for predicting the performance and emissions characteristics of Wankel engines has been developed and tested. Each chamber is treated as an open thermodynamic system and the effects of turbulent flame propagation, quench layer formation, gas motion, heat transfer and seal leakage are included. The experimental tests were carried out on a Toyo Kogyo 12B engine under both motoring and firing conditions and values for the effective seal leakage area and turbulent heat transfer coefficient were deduced. The agreement between the predicted and measured performances was reasonable. Parametric studies of the effects of reductions in seal leakage and heat transfer were carried out and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Autoignition of Alcohols and Ethers in a Rapid Compression Machine

The autoignition characteristics of methanol, ethanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) have been investigated in a rapid compression machine at pressures in the range 20-40 atm and temperatures within 750-1000 K. All three oxygenated fuels tested show higher autoignition temperatures than paraffins, a trend consistent with the high octane number of these fuels. The autoignition delay time for methanol was slightly lower than predicted values using reported reaction mechanisms. However, the experimental and measured values for the activation energy are in very good agreement around 44 kcal/mol. The measured activation energy for ethanol autoignition is in good agreement with previous shock tube results (31 kcal/mol), although ignition times predicted by the shock tube correlation are a factor of three lower than the measured values. The measured activation energy for MTBE, 41.4 kcal/mol, was significantly higher than the value previously observed in shock tubes (28.1 kcal/mol).
Technical Paper

Rapid Compression Machine Measurements of Ignition Delays for Primary Reference Fuels

A rapid compression machine for chemical kinetic studies has been developed. The design objectives of the machine were to obtain: 1)uniform well-defined core gas; 2) laminar flow condition; 3) maximum ratio of cooling to compression time; 4) side wall vortex containment; and, 5) minimum mechanical vibration. A piston crevice volume was incorporated to achieve the side wall vortex containment. Tests with inert gases showed the post-compression pressure matched with the calculated laminar pressure indicating that the machine achieved these design objectives. Measurements of ignition delays for homogeneous PRF/O2/N2/Ar mixture in the rapid compression machine have been made with five primary reference fuels (ON 100, 90, 75, 50, and 0) at an equivalence ratio of 1, a diluent (s)/oxygen ratio of 3.77, and two initial pressures of 500 Torr and 1000 Torr. Post-compression temperatures were varied by blending Ar and N2 in different ratios.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Turbulent Burning Model for Internal Combustion Engines

A model for describing turbulent flame propagation in internal combustion engines is presented. The model is based upon the assumption that eddies having a characteristic radius ℓe are entrained by the flame front at a turbulent entrainment velocity ue and subsequently burn in a characteristic time τ = ℓe/uℓ, where uℓ is the laminar flame speed for the fuel-air mixture. An approximate analytic method for determining the equilibrium state of the burned gases is also presented. To verify the predictions of the model, experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder research engine at speeds from 1000-3200 rpm, spark advances from 30-110 deg btc and fuel-air equivalence ratios from 0.7-1.5. Simultaneous measurements of the cylinder pressure and the position of the flame front as a function of crank angle were made, and good agreement with the predictions of the model was obtained for all operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Emissions and Performance Characteristics of a Wankel Engine

A performance model of a Wankel engine is developed which performs a leakage mass balance, accounts for heat transfer and flame quenching, and predicts the mass fraction burned as a function of chamber pressure. Experiments were performed on a production Wankel engine to obtain chamber pressure-time diagrams, and engine performance and emissions data. Model predictions of mass burned, global heat transfer, and hydrocarbon emission gave good agreement with measurements. Predictions of oxides of nitrogen are higher than measurements, especially at low loads. This is thought to be due to the adiabatic core gas assumption in the model. The need for a Wankel boundary layer study is identified.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Hydrocarbon Mass Flowrate in the Exhaust of a Spark-Ignition Engine

Experimental measurements of the instantaneous exhaust gas temperature, mass flowrate, and hydrocarbon concentration have been made in the exhaust of a single cylinder research engine. The temperature measurements were accomplished using an infrared optical technique and observing the radiation of the exhaust gas at the 4.4 μm band of CO2. Instantaneous exhaust gas mass flowrates were monitored by placing a restriction in the exhaust manifold and measuring the instantaneous pressures across the restriction. Time-resolved hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using a fast-acting sampling valve with an open time of 2 ms. From these measurements, the hydrocarbon mass flowrate is calculated as a function of crank angle.
Technical Paper

A Model of Quench Layer Entrainment During Blowdown and Exhaust of the Cylinder of an Internal Combustion Engine

An aerodynamic model of the entrainment of the head wall quench layer during blowdown and exhaust of an internal combustion engine has been developed. The model may be used to calculate the time resolved concentration and mass flowrate of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust, from a knowledge of engine geometry and operating conditions. It predicts that the area As from which HC are swept will be proportional to the cube root of the ratio of the quench layer thickness δq to the thickness of the viscous boundary layer δv. Since the mass of HC emitted is proportional to the product of the HC density ρHC, the area As and the thickness δq, the HC emissions will be proportional to the product ρHC δq4/3 and this is the most important factor determining the emissions.
Technical Paper

Laminar Burning Speed Measurements of Indolene-Air-Diluent Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures

The laminar burning speeds of two practical multi-component hydrocarbon fuels similar to automotive gasoline were measured using a spherical combustion bomb with central ignition. Mixtures with equivalence ratios between 0.7 and 1.6, and volume fractions of simulated residual gas between 0 and 0.3 were tested at pressures from 0.4 atm to 12 atm and unburned gas temperatures from 350 K to 550 K. The laminar burning speeds were fitted to a power function expression involving the unburned gas pressure and temperature, and the diluent fraction. The pressure and temperature dependences of the laminar burning speed for undiluted mixtures agreed well with values reported by other investigators for various fuels, indicating that these dependences are independent of fuel type. The percentage reduction in laminar burning speed due to the addition of simulated residual gas was found to be a function only of the amount added, independent of the properties of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Knock Behavior of a Lean-Burn, H2 and CO Enhanced, SI Gasoline Engine Concept

Experiments were performed to identify the knock trends of lean hydrocarbon-air mixtures, and such mixtures enhanced with hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). These enhanced mixtures simulated 15% and 30% of the engine's gasoline being reformed in a plasmatron fuel reformer [1]. Knock trends were determined by measuring the octane number (ON) of the primary reference fuel (mixture of isooctane and n-heptane) supplied to the engine that just produced audible knock. Experimental results show that leaner operation does not decrease the knock tendency of an engine under conditions where a fixed output torque is maintained; rather it slightly increases the octane requirement. The knock tendency does decrease with lean operation when the intake pressure is held constant, but engine torque is then reduced.