Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 6 of 6
Technical Paper

Characterization of Edge Fracture in Various Types of Advanced High Strength Steel

In vehicle crash events there is the potential for fracture to occur at the processed edges of structural components. The ability to avoid these types of fractures is desired in order to minimize intrusion and optimize energy absorption. However, the prediction of edge cracking is complicated by the fact that conventional tensile testing can provide insufficient data in regards to the local fracture behavior of advanced high strength steels. Fracture prediction is also made difficult because there can be inadequate data on how the cutting processes used for hole piercing and blanking affect the edge condition. In order to address these challenges, research was undertaken to analyze edge fracture in simple test pieces configured with side notches and center holes. Test specimens were made from a number of advanced high strength steels including 590R (C-Mn), 780T (TRIP), 980Y (dual phase) and hot stamp 1500 (martensitic).
Technical Paper

Material Property and Formability Characterization of Various Types of High Strength Dual Phase Steel

As a result of the increasing usage of high strength steels in automotive body structures, a number of formability issues, particularly bend and edge stretch failures, have come to the forefront of attention of both automotive OEMs and steel makers. This investigation reviews these stamping problems and attempts to identify how certain material properties and microstructural features relate to forming behavior. Various types of dual phase steels were evaluated in terms of tensile, bending, hole expansion, limiting dome height, and impact properties. In addition, the key microstructural differences of each grade were characterized. In order to understand the material behavior under practical conditions, stamping trials were conducted using actual part shapes. It was concluded that material properties can be optimized to maximize local formability in stamping applications. The results also emphasize that the dual phase classification can encompass a broad range of property variations.
Technical Paper

Practical Evaluation and Prediction of Edge Cracking in Forming Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS)

Practical evaluation and accurate prediction of edge cracking are challenging issues in stamping AHSS for automotive body structures. This paper introduces a new hole-expansion testing method that could be more relevant to the edge cracking problem observed in stamping AHSS. A new testing method adopted a large hole diameter of 75 mm compared to the ISO standard hole diameter of 10 mm. A larger hole diameter was determined to be sensitive to edge cracking using the finite element method (FEM) based sensitivity analyses with various hole sizes. A die punching tool was developed to replicate typical production blanking conditions. An inline monitoring system was developed to visually monitor the hole edge cracking during the test and synchronize with the load-displacement data. Two AHSS materials, DP980 and TRIP780, and an aluminum alloy, A1 5182-O, were experimentally evaluated.
Technical Paper

Application of 590/780MPa Grade TRIP Steel to Body-in-White

A highly ductile TRIP steel sheet has been developed and put into practical use to achieve weight savings in automotive Bodies-in-White. During deformation, TRIP steels experience a strain-induced transformation of retained austenite to hard martensite. This TRIP-effect increases the strength of the material and improves the formability by distributing strain over a larger area. In comparison to conventional high strength steel (HSS), TRIP steels have a superior balance between strength and ductility. The TRIP steels newly put into practical use at 590MPa and 780 MPa strength levels had equivalent formability to conventional HSS at the 440MPa and 590 MPa levels, respectively. Also it achieved equivalent coating quality, paintability and spot weldability to conventional HSS. Consequently, it was found that these TRIP steels can feasibly be applied to a wide variety of vehicle parts.
Technical Paper

Effects of Blanking Conditions to Edge Cracking in Stamping of Advanced-High Strength Steels (AHSS)

Practical evaluation and reduction of edge cracking are two challenging issues in stamping AHSS for automotive body structures. In this paper, the effects of the shear clearance and shear rake angle on edge cracking were investigated with three different grades of AHSS; TRIP780, DP 980, and DP 1180. Five different shear clearances, between 5% and 25% of material thickness, were applied to the flexible shearing machine to generate samples for the half specimen dome test (HSDT). The shear loads and the shear edge quality were thoroughly characterized and compared. The HSDT created the edge forming limits as compared to the base material forming limit diagram. The load-displacement curve was acquired by the load-cell and the strain distribution was measured using a digital image correlation (DIC) system during the dome test.
Journal Article

The Influence of the Through-Thickness Strain Gradients on the Fracture Characterization of Advanced High-Strength Steels

The development and calibration of stress state-dependent failure criteria for advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) and aluminum alloys requires characterization under proportional loading conditions. Traditional tests to construct a forming limit diagram (FLD), such as Marciniak or Nakazima tests, are based upon identifying the onset of strain localization or a tensile instability (neck). However, the onset of localization is strongly dependent on the through-thickness strain gradient that can delay or suppress the formation of a tensile instability so that cracking may occur before localization. As a result, the material fracture limit becomes the effective forming limit in deformation modes with severe through-thickness strain gradients, and this is not considered in the traditional FLD. In this study, a novel bending test apparatus was developed based upon the VDA 238-100 specification to characterize fracture in plane strain bending using digital image correlation (DIC).