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Technical Paper

A Double Planetary Gear Train-CVT Transmission with Multiple Applications

A family of transmission systems based on a “Planetary Gear - CVT” mechanism is presented here. The systems considered consist of two compound planetary gear trains connected through a CVT pulley system to provide the power/torque split and recirculation function, without the use of additional clutches and/or chain drives. A two degree of freedom system results in which one of the degrees of freedom is directly related to the CVT ratio. The mechanisms considered here combine the gear reduction function of compound planetary gear trains with the continuously variable trans- used as a circulating power control unit. The kinematics and dynamics of this family of systems is presented with emphasis on the belt forces, torques on the various shafts and the overall input/output velocity ratios through the CVT ratio span. Then a parametric analysis is conducted to characterize the effect of the various functional ratios and parameters of the system in terms of the overall performance.
Technical Paper

Rotor Shaft Bearing Analysis for Selected Rand Cam™ Engine Configurations

Analysis of two types of bearings has been performed for the rotor shaft of the Rand Cam™ engine. Rolling element bearings and a combination of journal and thrust bearings for selected engine configurations have been considered. The engine configurations consist of four, five, six, seven, and eight vanes. The bearing geometry and orientation was also addressed. This analysis is crucial due to the potentially large axial loading on the bearings and the need for the bearing arrangement to be compact and reliable. An emphasis was placed on the combination of fluctuating axial and radial loads and the resulting effect upon the bearings. Tapered roller bearings were found to be effective. However, a combination of journal and thrust bearings is a more compact bearing arrangement for this application. The eight vane configuration is the most desirable configuration based upon the bearing analysis.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Mobility Analysis of the Vane Lift Mechanism for the Rand Cam™ Engine

In this paper, a new method for the hydro-dynamic analysis of a sliding cylinder in a fully lubricated parallel track is presented. The method is an extension of Booker's “Mobility Method” (developed for cylindrical journal bearings) to the case of sliding cylinders, in which the clearance between the track and the cylinder, the viscosity of the lubricant, the radius and length of the pin, the sliding velocity and the applied transverse load determine the hydrodynamic behavior of the cylinder. In the Rand Cam™ Engine [1]*, the axicycloidal motion of vanes is driven by a rotor and a cylindrical cam, and one of the alternative designs to provide this function is based on a cylindrical pin sliding within a track which follows the profile of the motion of the main cams of the engine. This function is very important for the engine, since it separates the load bearing function from the sealing function left to the apex-like seals.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Non-Symmetric Stiller-Smith Mechanism on Balancing in a Small Internal Combustion Engine

Balancing to date, of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism, has been for a symmetric configuration. If two pistons are moved closer to the center of the engine to minimize spatial requirements and also reduce weight, then the mass center of the inner mechanism no longer travels in a circle about the center of the engine. It is shown how the overall balancing of the engine is not compromised using the example of a small 8-cylinder engine. The effects of the non-symmetry on the performance of the linear bearing is presented and the resulting additional engineering concerns are discussed.
Technical Paper

Use of a Cruciform Shaped Mechanism for Application to Internal Combustion Engines for Portable Auxiliary Power Equipment

The unique shape of cruciform engines provides an alternative to the typical in-line or “V-shaped” engines. The planar nature of the mechanism provides either a low profile or thin engine with the ability to stack many 4 cylinder banks into a compact large engine. The sinusoidal motion inherent in this mechanism provides unique balancing aspects which ultimately further reduce the size of the power plant. The compact cruciform shape lends itself to applications in portable hydraulic pumps, compressors, hydraulic motors, internal combustion engines, etc.
Technical Paper

Supression of Bearing Vibrations by Using Fiber-Reinforced Composites

The potential benefits of using advanced fiber-reinforced composites as an alternative to metallic alloys has been investigated for the design and fabrication of connecting rods in motion conversion mechanisms for internal combustion engines. Two types of mechanisms have been selected for this analysis: the common slider-crank mechanism and the new. Stiller-Smith Mechanism, in which the crankshaft is replaced by a floating gear system. An improved finite-element elastodynamic model, which includes the effects of longitudinal, bending and shear deformations, has been developed in order to quantify the relationships between the levels of bearing loads and vibrations of such mechanisms and the material design of their connecting-rods. An extensive parametric study has been conducted on the material system, the lay-up and the cross-sectional dimensions of elastic connecting rods, made of helically wound composite materials.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic implications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism

The Stiller-Smith mechanism is a new mechanism for the translation of linear motion into rotary motion, and has been considered as an alternative to the conventional slider-crank mechanism in the design of internal combustion engines and piston compressors. Piston motion differs between the two mechanisms, being perfectly sinusoidal for the Stiller-Smith case. Plots of dimensionless volume and volume rate-change are presented for one engine cycle. It is argued that the different motion is important when considering rate-based processes such as heat transfer to a cylinder wall and chemical kinetics during combustion. This paper also addresses the fact that a Stiller-Smith engine will be easier to configure for adiabatic operation, with many attendant benefits.
Technical Paper

The Stiller-Smith Engine-The Dewelopment of a New Environment for High-Tech Materials

New high-tech materials which are anticipated to revolutionize the internal combustion engine are being created everyday. However, their actual utilization in existing engines has encountered numerous stumbling blocks. High piston sidewall forces and thermal stresses are some of the problems of primary concern. The Stiller-Smith Engine should provide an environment more conducive to the use of some of these materials. Absent from the Stiller-Smith Engine is a crankshaft, and thus a very different motion is observed. Since all parts in the Stiller-Smith Engine move in either linear or rotary fashion it is simple to balance. Additionally the use of linear connecting rod bearings changes the location of the sidewall forces thus providing an isolated combustion chamber more tolerant to brittle materials and potential adiabatic designs. Presented herein is the development of this new engine environment, from conceptualization to an outline of present and future research.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism in an Application of a 4-Cylinder Plunger Pump System

The development of a mathematical model of StillerSmith Mechanism for the application of a 4-cylinder plunger pump system is presented. The magnitude and direction of the internal dynamic load are obtained by solving a set of equations using the overall geometric parameters, prescribed motions, inertia distribution, and applied torques on the system. The simulation presented here yields the history of the internal loads, which are then normalized with respect to the required peak output load on the plungers, through an entire rotary cycle. The approach allows for the development of further design criteria through parametric sensitivity studies.
Technical Paper

A Compression Ignition Engine Comparison Between a Slider-Crank and a Cross-Slider Based Engine

The Scotch yoke in its various forms and inversions has received considerable attention as possible alternatives to the slider-crank for internal combustion engine use. As a recent entry, the Stiller-Smith Mechanism has shown promise as being a viable and strong option. In this study emphasis was placed on comparing the number and similarity of mechanism components and the balancing aspects of these components, implications of component and linkage motions, the severity of loading experienced by similar bearing surfaces within the engines, and some of the friction losses associated with these new motions. It was found that the Stiller-Smith Engine has significantly fewer moving parts. It was also found that journal bearings in the slider-crank engine were more severely loaded than those in the Stiller-Smith Engine. The linear reciprocating bearings in the Stiller-Smith Engine were more heavily loaded than the slider-crank piston skirts.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Measurement System

The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS) which is costly to build and maintain, and requires a large workspace. A portable micro-dilution system that could be used for measuring on-board, in use emissions from heavy duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative compared to a full-flow CVS tunnel, as well as requiring significantly less workspace. This paper evaluates such a portable particulate matter measuring system. This micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The dilution ratios for the micro-dilution system were maintained at least four to one, as per ISO 8178 requirements, by measuring the mass flow rates of the dilution air and dilute exhaust.
Technical Paper

Sealing and Structural Enhancement System for the Rear Cargo Ramp of a C-130 Aircraft

At flight levels above the ceiling of 10,000 feet, during the operational phase of a sensor deployment system for a C-130 aircraft, it becomes necessary to seal the cargo hold to maintain pressure for the safety and comfort of the crew and operators. In order for the sensor deployment System to have full mission support capabilities for DoD reconnaissance needs, a system must be designed where-by the cargo area may be sealed once the system has been deployed. Currently, with the sensor pod in position, the ramp can be closed to within a few inches of the locked position. The door in this position, for stability during flight, must be locked and structurally supported to maintain the aircrafts design requirements. This presents the first of a series of issues that must be examined for the success of the final design. To seal the remaining area, an expanding “bladder-seal” has been developed.
Technical Paper

Hub Connection Simulation of a Sensor Platform System

In this analysis the structural integrity of the rotational system of a standardized roll-on, roll-off sensor pallet system was authenticated. The driving force behind this analysis was to ensure the structural integrity of the system and to locate the areas with optimization potential. This process will ideally lead to the weight reduction of individual components thereby allowing for the transportation of greater cargo during flight. Scaling down of these excessive areas will also allow for a reduced production cost and an increase in efficiency of the system. The study was comprised of the failure susceptibility of the individual components of the system. The major results include the optimization potential of individual components, as well as strategically rating and categorizing the failure capability of the components.
Technical Paper

Maintenance Issues and Fail Safes of the Oculus Sensor Platform System

When designing the Oculus sensor platform, many safety issues such as designing fail safes, adapting to flying situations, and examining situations produced by exposure to real-world conditions were taken into consideration. When predicting maintenance issues, environmental conditions that the platform will have to encounter were assessed. A material that was lightweight and strong enough to withstand the harsh environmental conditions experienced outside the C-130 aircraft was needed. In addition to the material used, another issue addressed was the ability to repair the platform easily and efficiently. Normal operations expose the components to significant wear and tear, which requires the replacement of parts to maintain safe operations. Oculus was constructed to allow for component replacement without deconstruction of the entire platform. While environmental factors were a concern, mechanical design and functionality, along with safety, was vital to the project.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compliance Issues of Project Oculus

Project Oculus, an experimental configurable sensor platform for deploying airborne sensors on a C-130 aircraft, is currently in its pre-flight testing phase. The electronics driving the platform are available commercially off the shelf (COTS) and as such are not automatically rated to comply with stringent military electromagnetic standards as defined in MIL-STD-461. These COTS electronics include efficient switching power converters, variable frequency motor drives (VFD), and microprocessor based equipment, all of which can present electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues. Even in a design where EMI issues were not considered up front, it is often possible to bring the overall configuration into compliance. Switching and digital clock signals produce both conducted and radiated noise emissions. Long cable runs and enclosure apertures become noise transmitting antennas. Large switching currents place noise on the power lines causing interference with other equipment.