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Technical Paper

Homogenization of Combustion in Cylinder of CI Engine Using Porous Medium

2003-03-03
2003-01-1085
The paper deals with the simulation of properties of IC engine equipped with a chemically inert porous media (PM) to homogenize and stabilize the combustion of CI engines. The purpose of the PM matrix use is to ensure reliable a ignition of lean mixture and to limit maximum in-cylinder temperature during combustion. It is aimed at NO formation reduction. The influence of PM on an engine cycle is examined by means of CFD simulations. Results demonstrating the influence of heat accumulation, heat supply during compression and expansion strokes and self-ignition properties of a fuel on the engine cycle are presented. All simulations involve modeling of NO formation. The homogenization capability and the flame stabilization one of the PM are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Pre-Chamber Ignition System for Light Duty Truck Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1147
In this article the development of a combustion system with a fuel-scavenged pre-chamber is described. Such a system is commonly used in large-bore engines operated with extremely lean mixtures. The authors implemented the scavenged pre-chamber into a light duty truck-size engine with a bore of 102 mm. The lean burn strategy is intended to achieve very low nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions at low load. At full load a stoichiometric mixture strategy is applied to achieve sufficient power density while simultaneously enabling the use of a relatively simple three-way catalytic converter for exhaust gas aftertreatment. This work outlines the pre-chamber design features and introduces the results of an experimental investigation of the effect of pre-chamber ignition on a single cylinder testing engine.
Technical Paper

Calibration and Results of a Radial Turbine 1-D Model with Distributed Parameters

2011-04-12
2011-01-1146
The physical 1-D model of a radial turbine consists in a set of gas ducts featuring total pressure and/or temperature changes and losses. This model has been developed using the basic modules of generalized 1-D manifold solver. The tools for it were presented at SAE 2008 and 2009 World Congresses. The model published before is amended by a semi-empiric mechanical loss and windage loss modules. The instantaneous power of a turbine is integrated along the rotating impeller channel using Euler turbine theorem, which respects the local unsteadiness of mass flow rate along the channel. The main aim of the current contribution is to demonstrate the use of measured turbine maps for calibration of unsteady turbine model for different lay-outs of turbine blade cascades. It is important for VG turbines for the optimal matching to different engine speeds and loads requirements.
Technical Paper

Improved Simulation of Transient Engine Operations at Unsteady Speed Combining 1-D and 3-D Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1109
The new simulation tool consists of an iterative loop of a 3-D code in parallel to a 1-D code that is employed to simulate transient engine cycles. The 1-D code yields the basic pattern of initial and boundary conditions and the 3-D simulations at several typical engine operating points are used to crosscheck the performance as well as aid in the model calibration. A flexible regression model of the fuel burn rate and the associated ROHR has been developed in conjunction with the 3-D simulations using a combination of three added Vibe functions. The emissions at the end of the expansion stroke are also predicted. The parameters of the Vibe functions and emissions are found via nonlinear regression based on state parameters such as engine speed, relative A/F ratio, EGR/rest gas contents, injection timings, etc. Additional 3-D simulations that are made at specific engine operating points complement this compact burn rate parameter library.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Radial Turbocharger Turbine Characteristics under Real Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0311
The paper deals with investigation of flow characteristics of turbocharger turbine under real operating conditions on engine by means of combination of experimental data and advanced 1-D code for combustion engine simulation. Coupling simulations tools with the results of measurements provides the engineers with data which are difficult or impossible to measure. For instance by means of a three pressure analysis (TPA) applicable on engine cylinder the engineers can obtain burn rate, valve flow and residual gas compound from measured pressure traces in cylinder and at inlet and outlet ports. A method for turbocharger turbine on engine identification similar in principle to the three pressure analysis has been applied on radial turbine with variable geometry. A new computational module has been developed to allow identification of instantaneous flow and efficiency characteristics of the turbine.
Technical Paper

LES Simulation of Flame Propagation in a Direct-Injection SI-Engine to Identify the Causes of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1084
A Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is applied to the calculation of multiple SI-engine cycles in order to study the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The single-cylinder research engine adopted in the present study is equipped with direct fuel-injection and variable valve timing for both the intake and exhaust side. Operating conditions representing cases with considerably different scatter of the in-cylinder pressure traces are selected to investigate the causes of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. In the simulation the engine is represented by a coupled 1D/3D-CFD model, with the combustion chamber and the intake/exhaust ports modeled in 3D-CFD, and the intake/exhaust pipework set-up adopting a 1D-CFD approach. The adopted LES flow model is based upon the well-established Smagorinsky approach. Simulation of the fuel spray propagation process is based upon the discrete droplet model.
Technical Paper

1-D Model of Roots Type Supercharger

2013-04-08
2013-01-0927
This paper introduces research work on 1-D model of Roots type supercharger with helical gears using 1-D simulation tool. Today, passenger car engine design follows approach of downsizing and the reduction of number of engine cylinders. Superchargers alone or their combination with turbochargers can fulfill low-end demands on engine torque for such engines. Moreover, low temperature combustion of lean mixture at low engine loads becomes popular (HCCI, PCCI) requiring high boost pressure of EGR/fresh air mixture at low exhaust gas temperature, which poses too high demands on turbocharger efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to describe Roots charger features and to amend Roots charger design.
Technical Paper

A Simple Physical Model of ICE Mechanical Losses

2011-04-12
2011-01-0610
The current state-of-the-art offers two extremes of engine mechanical loss models: pure empirical models, using, e.g., regression models based on experimental results, and full-sized 3-D hydrodynamic friction models, solving Reynolds-like lubrication equations for complicated geometry of piston ring/cylinder liner or load-distorted shapes of crankshaft/connecting rod bearings and journals. Obviously, the former method cannot be reliably extrapolated while the latter is too complicated, especially for the early stage of design. The aim of the current paper is describing the development and experimental calibration of the physical cranktrain model for FMEP prediction, based on simplified phenomenological model of mixed friction. The model uses simply defined shapes of Stribeck curves (friction coefficient) in dependence on Sommerfeld number, i.e., on effective sliding velocity, oil viscosity, dimension scaling factor and the normal force load.
Technical Paper

Air System Conception for a Downsized Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0831
This paper introduces a research work on the air loop system for a downsized two-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine conducted in framework of the European project dealing with the POWERtrain for Future Light-duty vehicles - POWERFUL. The main objective was to determine requirements on the air management including the engine intake and exhaust system, boosting devices and the EGR system and to select the best possible technical solution. With respect to the power target of 45 kW and scavenging demands of the two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a displacement of 0.73 l, a two-stage boosting architecture was required. Further, to allow engine scavenging at any operation, supercharger had to be integrated in the air loop. Various air loop system layouts and concepts were assessed based on the 1-D steady state simulation at full and part load with respect to the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

LES Simulation of Direct Injection SI-Engine In-Cylinder Flow

2012-04-16
2012-01-0138
The present paper deals with the application of the LES approach to in-cylinder flow modeling. The main target is to study cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) using 3D-CFD simulation. The engine model is based on a spark-ignited single-cylinder research engine. The results presented in this paper cover the motored regime aiming at analysis of the cycle-resolved local flow properties at the spark plug close to firing top dead center. The results presented in this paper suggest that the LES approach adopted in the present study is working well and that it predicts CCV and that the qualitative trends are in-line with established knowledge of internal combustion engine (ICE) in-cylinder flow. The results are evaluated from a statistical point of view based on calculations of many consecutive cycles (at least 10).
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Control Strategies During Transient Processes Combining 1-D and 3-D Approaches

2010-04-12
2010-01-0783
One-dimensional simulation methods for unsteady (transient) engine operations have been developed and published in previous studies. These 1-D methods utilize heat release and emissions results obtained from 3-D CFD simulations which are stored in a data library. The goal of this study is to improve the 1-D methodology by optimizing the control strategies. Also, additional independent parameters are introduced to extend the 3-D data library, while, as in the previous studies, the number of interpolation points for each parameter remains small. The data points for the 3-D simulations are selected in the vicinity of the expected trajectories obtained from the independent parameter changes, as predicted by the transient 1-D simulations. By this approach, the number of time-consuming 3-D simulations is limited to a reasonable amount.
Technical Paper

Combining Thermodynamics and Design Optimization for Finding ICE Downsizing Limits

2014-04-01
2014-01-1098
The mass and overall dimensions of massively downsized engines for very high bmep (up to 35 bar) cannot be estimated by scaling of designs already available. Simulation methods coupling different levels of method profoundness, as 1-D methods, e.g., GT Suite/GT Power with in-house codes for engine mechanical efficiency assessment and preliminary design of boosting devices (a virtual compressor and a turbine), were used together with optimization codes based on genetic algorithms. Simultaneously, the impact of optimum cycle on cranktrain components dimensions (especially cylinder bore spacing), mass and inertia force loads were estimated since the results were systematically stored and analyzed in Design Assistance System DASY, developed by the authors for purposes of early-stage conceptual design. General thermodynamic cycles were defined by limiting parameters (bmep, burning duration, engine speed and turbocharger efficiency only).
Technical Paper

Physical Model of a Twin-scroll Turbine with Unsteady Flow

2015-04-14
2015-01-1718
The paper describes a way to a 1-D central streamline model of a radial turbine flow, suitable for twin-scroll description and based on approximation of real physics of flow mixing and energy transformation. The original 1-D model of a single scroll turbine, described earlier in numerous SAE papers, has been amended by twin-scroll nozzles (both vaneless or with blade cascades) and mixing of individual partitions of flows upstream of additional vaneless nozzle and an impeller. This model is transferable to 1-D unsteady simulations as it is (i.e., using quasi-steady approach) or using 1-D unsteady solvers. It has suitable features even for more detailed description of turbine flows and energy transformation. The first results of pulse influence on turbine maps delivered expected results consisting of complicated interaction between individual losses.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Combustion Model for a Large Low-Speed 2-Stroke Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0770
A quasi-dimensional dual fuel combustion model is proposed for a large 2-stroke marine engine. The introduced concept accounts for both diffusion combustion of the liquid pilot fuel and the flame front propagation throughout the gaseous premixed charge. For the pilot fuel case a common integral formulation defines the ignition delay whereas a time scale approach is incorporated for the combustion progress modeling. In order to capture spatial differences given by the scavenging process and the admission of the gaseous fuel, the cylinder volume is discretized into a number of zones. The laws of conservation are applied to calculate the thermodynamic conditions and the fuel concentration distribution. Subsequently, the ignition delay of the gaseous fuel-air mixture is determined by the use of tabulated kinetics and the ensuing oxidation is described by a flame velocity correlation.
Technical Paper

Determination and Representation of Turbocharger Thermodynamic Efficiencies

2016-04-05
2016-01-1042
The boost pressure demands call for high efficiency turbochargers. Perfect matching to an engine and controlling in operation is a prerequisite, especially if highly diluted mixture is used. The main impact on four-stroke engine efficiency is performed via gas exchange work, Correct turbocharger representation, usually performed by maps, should be delivered by turbocharger manufacturers and applied in simulation optimizations. The robust calibration methods are required for fast-running real time simulations used for model-based control. The paper clarifies the relations between apparent and real turbocharger isentropic efficiencies at steady-flow testbed and their impact on engine cycle optimization by simulation. Simple procedures excluding the impact of heat transfer inside a turbocharger are described. The described methods are based on the use of overall turbocharger efficiency.
Technical Paper

System Optimization for a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine with a Turbo Super Configuration Supporting Fuel Economy Improvement of Next Generation Engines

2014-11-11
2014-32-0011
The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Potential of Electrical Turbocharging for the Case of Small Passenger Car ICE under Steady Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0526
The proposed paper deals with thermodynamic optimization of highly flexible ICE (variable compression ratio, intake/exhaust VVA) while comparing e-turbocharging concept with classical one. The e-turbocharging approach is based on idea that compressor/turbine has its own electric machine (motor/generator) and that additional electric energy can be supplied/attached from/to engine crank train. Hence it allows independent control of compressor/turbine. On the other hand, classical approach is based on a standard mechanical connection between turbine and compressor. The whole system (flexible engine + boost device) is optimized under steady operation – low load (BMEP of 4 bar), medium load (BMEP of 13 bar), high load (BMEP of 30, 25 and 18 bar) and maximum load are considered. Moreover, 3 combustion concepts are considered – classical SI and CI, and ideal RCCI. Sensitivity study of selected parameters is performed: e.g., efficiency of electric machine(s), HP exhaust manifold volume.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of Split Injections and EGR in a Diesel Engine Using an Adaptive Gradient-Based Algorithm

2006-04-03
2006-01-0059
The objective of this study is the development of a computationally efficient CFD-based tool for finding optimal engine operating conditions with respect to fuel consumption and emissions. The optimization algorithm employed is based on the steepest descent method where an adaptive cost function is minimized along each line search using an effective backtracking strategy. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space. The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for the Sulzer S20, a central-injection, non-road DI diesel engine. The optimization parameters are the start of injection of the two pulses, the duration of each pulse, the duration of the dwell, the exhaust gas recirculation rate and the boost pressure.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Sensor Performance During Engine Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-1299
The paper deals with the investigation of pressure, flow and temperature sensor performance under unsteady conditions using advanced 1-D codes for simulation of engine operation. Approach of internal combustion engine (ICE) sensor modeling in an engine simulation code is described. Some new external modules have been developed to couple engine-and-pipe model to sensors. Sensor dynamic and engine dynamic effects are separated by combining a sensor model with an engine model. The models were tuned to match real data with the goal of uncovering the transfer function between the measured signal and the actual signal. Procedure for estimation of the in-cylinder pressure pattern from distorted pattern at sensor location using empirical transfer function is presented. The developed model seems to have a wide application, e.g. for investigation of dynamical characteristics of lambda sensors or gas analyzer probes.
Technical Paper

New Approach to Turbocharger Optimization using 1-D Simulation Tools

2006-04-03
2006-01-0438
The paper deals with the investigation of turbocharger optimization procedures using amended 1-D simulation tools. The proposed method uses scaled flow rate/effficiency maps for different sizes of a radial turbine together with a fictitious compressor map. The compressor pressure ratio/efficiency map depends on compressor circumference velocity only and predicts the both compressor specific power and achievable efficiency. At the first stage of optimization, it avoids the problems of reaching choking/surge limits. It enables the designer to find a suitable turbine type under realistic unsteady conditions (pressure pulses in exhaust manifold) concerning turbine flow area. Once the optimization of turbine/compressor impeller diameters is finished, the specific compressor map is selected. The proposed method provides the fast way to the best solution even for the case of a VGT turbine. Additional features have been developed for the representation of scaled turbine and compressor maps.
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