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Technical Paper

General Aviation Aircraft Design Methodology in a PC Environment

A personal computer based preliminary design system for aircraft demonstrates a practical method to design and analyze any aircraft configuration. The program provides a powerful framework to support the non-unique process of aircraft preliminary design. The system will allow design engineers to rapidly evolve an aircraft configuration from weight sizing through detailed performance calculations, while working within regulatory constraints. The program is designed to reduce the preliminary design phase cost and to bring advanced design methods to small businesses and universities.
Technical Paper

Design Developments for Advanced General Aviation Aircraft

The preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are topics to be discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. This paper will present the results obtained during the fall semester of 1990. The project will be continued into the spring semester of 1991.
Technical Paper

Automated Aircraft Configuration Design and Analysis

The University of Kansas, Flight Research Laboratory is developing an interactive, user-friendly computer program to perform preliminary design and analysis functions for fixed wing airplanes. This paper presents a discussion of the current status of this program. Use of the program is illustrated with an example application to an advanced stealth bomber.
Technical Paper

Separate Surfaces for Automatic Flight Controls

The purpose of this paper is to describe an investigation of separate surface stability augmentation systems for general aviation aircraft. The program objectives were twofold: First a wind tunnel program to determine control effectiveness of separate surfaces in the presence of main surfaces, and hinge moment feedback from separate surfaces via the main surfaces to the pilot; second, a theoretical study to determine the minimum performance of actuators and sensors that can be tolerated, the best slaving gains to be used with separate surfaces, and control authority needed for proper operation under direct pilot control, under autopilot control, and in failure situations. On the basis of the results obtained, it has been concluded that separate surface systems are feasible and advantageous for use in general aviation aircraft.
Technical Paper

Review of the General Aviation Drag Reduction Workshop

A review is given of the NASA/Industry/University General Aviation Drag Reduction Workshop which was held at The University of Kansas, July 14-16, 1975. It is shown that large drag reductions can be made, particularly in propeller driven airplanes. It is also shown, however, that existing drag prediction methods are inadequate to cope with propeller driven airplanes. Many unknowns are shown to exist with regard to the problem of designing general aviation airplanes for minimum drag. Several areas for potentially fruitful research are indicated. A list of 123 drag references is included. This paper is based on work supported by NASA under NASA Grant NSG 1175.
Technical Paper

Unconventional Commuter Configurations: A Design Investigation

The results of a design investigation of some unconventional airplane configurations are reported in this paper. The viability of designing canard and 3-surface airplanes to meet commuter airline needs was investigated. This study was conducted on an airplane designed to carry 30 passengers on 600 n.m. stage lengths, cruising at 0.6 Mach number at an altitude of 28,000 feet. A test ride quality evaluation was also carried out. This indicated that, although considerable performance improvement was possible over existing airplanes of the same type, active ride augmentation systems were needed to achieve airliner levels of comfort. All three airplanes looked good in terms of mission fuel consumption and climb terms. The 3-surface configuration managed to edge out the other two in those same terms.
Technical Paper

Development of a Simple, Self-Contained Flight Test Data Acquisition System

This paper describes a simple, self-contained flight test data acquisition system. The system makes use of the latest sensor and microprocessor technology available, to reduce overall system costs. Coupled with this is the use of modern control theory techniques allowing minimization of data requirements, as well as flight time requirements. Capability of the system includes primarily stability and performance analysis of general aviation airplanes, although system versatility has been designed into the package. Presented are details of the prototype system constructed, as well as details of the data reduction technique utilized. Preliminary results of the flight test program have also been included which demonstrate the capability of this system.
Technical Paper

Natural Laminar Flow and Regional Aircraft

This paper describes work done under a NASA-Langley grant at the university of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory in the area of natural laminar flow and regional aircraft. The focus of this paper is on the application of natural laminar flow over various major wetted areas. In particular, efforts were concentrated on analyzing the potential benefits of achieving extensive laminar flow on the wing, empennage, and fuselage. The effect of the presence of large amounts of laminar flow is evaluated in terms of performance and efficiency improvement over an all-turbulent baseline aircraft. An introduction is given to the concept of regional aircraft, and the aerodynamic characteristics are compared to those of other airplane classes. Some recent aerodynamic developments are presented that justify, to a certain extent, the assumptions made concerning the amount of natural laminar flow that is possible for each surface.
Technical Paper

Summary of the Weight and Balance, and The Drag Characteristics of a Typical Ultralight Aircraft

Since the entry of ultralight aircraft into the market in 1975, many changes have come about. With these changes, questions have arisen regarding the overall safety of these vehicles. This paper will show preliminary results of tests conducted to obtain an overall data base of a typical ultralight aircraft. These tests were conducted on an Airmass Sunburst Ultralight Model ‘C’ and include results from an experimental weight and balance as well as a theoretical drag analysis. The data base is viewed only as a starting point for allowing the ultralight industry to better understand the true characteristics exhibited by typical ultralight aircraft. This would allow for the design of safe ultralights under the current voluntary self-regulation program or any future programs that might be developed.