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Technical Paper

Evaluation of VDANL and VDM RoAD for Predicting the Vehicle Dynamics of a 1994 Ford Taurus

The paper presents an evaluation of two vehicle dynamics simulations: “Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear” (VDANL) from Systems Technology, Inc. and “Vehicle Dynamics Models for Roadway Analysis and Design” (VDM RoAD) from the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The versions of these simulations are being developed for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Working in cooperation with the FHWA, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) in East Liberty, Ohio, has evaluated these simulations. An extensive vehicle parameter measurement and field testing program has been performed using a 1994 Ford Taurus to provide simulation parameters and to “benchmark” data for the simulation evaluation.
Technical Paper

Parameter Measurement and Development of a NADSdyna Validation Data Set for a 1994 Ford Taurus

This paper discusses the development of a 1994 Ford Taurus vehicle model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator's planned vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The front and rear suspensions of the Taurus are modeled using recursive rigid body dynamics formulations. To complement vehicle dynamics, subsystems models that include steering, braking, and tire forces are included. These models provide state-of-the-art high fidelity vehicle handling dynamics for real-time simulation. The realism of a particular formulation depend heavily on how the parameters are obtained from the physical system. Therefore, the development of a data set for a particular model is as important as the model itself. The methodology for generating the Taurus data set is presented. The power train model is not yet included, so the simulation is run with the vehicle either at constant speed or decelerating.
Technical Paper

Experimental Testing of a 1994 Ford Taurus for NADSdyna Validation

As part of the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) program, the Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) in East Liberty, Ohio is evaluating the NADS vehicle dynamics software. As part of VRTC's effort, an extensive vehicle testing program to provide data for the simulation evaluation was performed. This paper describes VRTC's testing of a 1994 Ford Taurus GL passenger car. Each of the test maneuvers run by the Taurus are described, along with instrumentation setup, control actuation, test conditions, and driver procedures. The test data reduction and processing are detailed. Sample results of the testing and an analysis of test repeatability and measurement noise are also presented.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Validating the National Advanced Driving Simulator's Vehicle Dynamics (NADSdyna)

This paper presents an overview of work performed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) to test, validate, and improve the planned National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation. This vehicle dynamics simulation, called NADSdyna, was developed by the University of Iowa's Center for Computer-Aided Design (CCAD) NADSdyna is based upon CCAD's general purpose, real-time, multi-body dynamics software, referred to as the Real-Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD), supplemented by vehicle dynamics specific submodules VRTC has “beta tested” NADSdyna, making certain that the software both works as computer code and that it correctly models vehicle dynamics. This paper gives an overview of VRTC's beta test work with NADSdyna. The paper explains the methodology used by VRTC to validate NADSdyna.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Dynamic Characteristics of Tire Lateral and Longitudinal Force Responses to Dynamic Inputs

This paper presents the development of a tire model for use in the simulation of vehicle dynamics. The model was developed to predict tire lateral and longitudinal force responses to dynamic inputs. In this new tire model, the contact patch of a tire is lumped into a number of elements to study the dynamic behavior of the displacement of the tire contact patch in the lateral and longitudinal directions. For each displacement, a differential equation governing the dynamic behavior of the displacement to the dynamic inputs is derived. Based on the differential equations for the lateral and longitudinal displacements, difference equations are derived for the purpose of simulating tire output responses. Since system parameters, such as mass, damping and stiffness, in the difference equations are unknown, estimation of system parameters is performed using the differential equations and experimental data measured for this research.
Technical Paper

A Low Cost PC Based Driving Simulator for Prototyping and Hardware-In-The-Loop Applications

This paper describes a low cost, PC based driving simulation that includes a complete vehicle dynamics model (VDM), photo realistic visual display, torque feedback for steering feel and realistic sound generation. The VDM runs in real-time on Intel based PCs. The model, referred to as VDANL (Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear) has been developed and validated for a range of vehicles over the last decade and has been previously used for computer simulation analysis. The model's lateral and longitudinal dynamics have 17 degrees of freedom for a single unit vehicle and 33 degrees of freedom for an articulated vehicle. The model also includes a complete drive train including engine, transmission and front and rear drive differentials, and complete, power assisted braking and steering systems. A comprehensive tire model (STIREMOD) generates lateral and longitudinal forces and aligning torque based on normal load, camber angle and horizontal (lateral and longitudinal) slip.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Method for the Measurement of Composite Suspension Parameters

The need to measure vehicle parameters required for vehicle dynamics simulations has been a difficult and time-consuming task since the first simulations were developed over 35 years ago. The wide variety of simulations developed have demanded as wide a variety of vehicle parameters. Due in part to this diversity, no standard set of measurement techniques has been developed. A laboratory facility to measure the vehicle parameters for a 13-degree-of-freedom, lumped parameter, nonlinear vehicle dynamics simulation (VDANL) was needed. Parameters for a large number of vehicles were required. Therefore, only a few days could be devoted to measuring the parameters for each vehicle. The Composite Parameter Measurement Device (CPMD) was designed and built to meet these goals. The hardware, data acquisition system and analysis software are presented. The roll test, steer test, and aligning stiffness test, used during the initial testing are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Validating Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

This paper presents a methodology for validating vehicle stability and control computer simulations. Validation is defined as showing that, within some specified operating range of the vehicle, a simulation's predictions of a vehicle's responses agree with the actual measured vehicle's responses to within some specified level of accuracy. The method uses repeated experimental runs at each test condition to generate sufficient data for statistical analyses. The acquisition and reduction of experimental data, and the processing path for simulation data, are described. The usefulness of time domain validation for steady state and slowly varying transients is discussed. The importance of frequency domain validation for thoroughly validating a simulation is shown. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the comparison of the simulation predictions with the actual test measurements are developed.
Technical Paper

Vehicle and Tire Modeling for DynamicAnalysis and Real-Time Simulation

This paper reviews the development and application of a computer simulation for simulating ground vehicle dynamics including steady state tire behavior. The models have been developed over the last decade, and include treatment of sprung and unsprung masses, suspension characteristics and composite road plane tire forces. The models have been applied to single unit passenger cars, trucks and buses, and articulated tractor/trailer vehicles. The vehicle model uses composite parameters that are relatively easy to measure. The tire model responds to normal load, camber angle and composite tire patch slip, and its longitudinal and lateral forces interact with an equivalent friction ellipse formulation. The tire model can represent behavior on both paved and off-road surfaces. Tire model parameters can be automatically identified given tire force and moment test data.
Technical Paper

Driver/Vehicle Modeling and Simulation

This paper describes the driver/vehicle modeling aspects of a computer simulation that can respond to highway engineering descriptions of roadways. The driver model interacts with a complete vehicle dynamics model that has been described previously. The roadway path is described in terms of horizontal and vertical curvature and cross slopes of lanes, shoulders, side slopes and ditches. Terrain queries are made by the vehicle dynamics to locate tires on the roadway cross-section, and to define vehicle path and road curvature at some distance down the road. The driver model controls steering to maintain lateral lane position. Speed is maintained at a speed limit on tangents, and decreased as needed to maintain safe lateral acceleration. Because the bandwidth of longitudinal (speed) control is much lower than lateral/directional (steering) control, the driver model looks further ahead for speed control than for steering.
Technical Paper

Tire Modeling for Off-Road Vehicle Simulation

A tire/terrain interaction model is presented to support the dynamic simulation of off-road ground vehicle. The model adopts a semi-empirical approach that is based on curve fits of soil data combined with soil mechanics theories to capture soil compaction, soil shear deformation, and soil passive failure that associate with off-road driving. The resulting model allows the computation of the tire forces caused by terrain deformation in longitudinal and lateral direction. This model has been compared with experimental data and shown reasonable prediction of the tire/terrain interaction.
Journal Article

Development of a Vehicle Model/Simulation Evaluation Tool

As part of the evaluation of vehicle simulation models, a vehicle dynamics engineer typically desires to compare simulation results to test data from actual vehicles and/or results from known, or higher fidelity simulations. Depending on the type of model, several types of tests and/or maneuvers may need to be compared. For military vehicles, there is the additional requirement to run specific types of maneuvers for vehicle model evaluations to ensure that the vehicle complies with procurement requirements. A thorough evaluation will run two different categories of tests/maneuvers. The first category consists of laboratory type tests that include weight distribution, kinematics and compliance, steering ratio, and other static measures. The second category consists of dynamic maneuvers that include handling, drive train, braking, ride, and obstacle types. In this paper, a process for proper evaluation of vehicle simulation models is presented.