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Technical Paper

Cold Start Emissions Investigation at Different Ambient Temperature Conditions

1998-02-23
980401
A vital question for car manufacturers in countries where the temperature over night falls below freezing, is the significant increase of CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emissions during the start and warm-up of spark ignition engines. ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) (UDC) (Urban Driving Cycle) cycles, divided into elementary phases, have been used to determine the level of harmful CO and HC emissions and fuel consumption in the cold start and warm up phase. Tests were undertaken on cars conditioned in temperatures ranging from +22°C to -15°C have shown significant increases in CO and HC as the temperature decreases.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and PM Emission from Combat Vehicle Engines during Start and Warm-Up

2010-10-25
2010-01-2283
The paper presents the results of the investigations of an armored modular vehicle 8x8 Rosomak fitted with a diesel engine during start and warm-up. For the measurements of the toxic compounds a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS was used. The analyzer allowed a measurement of exhaust emission at the same time measuring the mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. The analysis of the PM emission was performed based on the measurement of the size of the particulate matter (analyzer 3090 EEPS - Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer™ Spectrometer - by TSI Incorporated) and counting of the particles (analyzer Particle Counter by AVL). The measurements of CO, HC, NOx, PM and fuel consumption have also been carried out under static conditions, during startup and at constant engine speed without engine load. For the measurement of the engine operating conditions and the fuel consumption a diagnostic vehicle system was used.
Technical Paper

The Comparison of the Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle in On-road and NEDC Tests

2010-04-12
2010-01-1298
The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles have been carried out on a chassis dynamometer (NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US). Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions and that is why we should analyze the correlation of the laboratory versus on-road test results. The paper presents the on-road test results obtained in an urban and extra urban cycles. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS has been used. The device is an analyzer enabling an on-line measurement of the emission gases concentration in a real driving cycle under real road conditions. The road tests were performed on road portions of several kilometers each. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained for the same vehicle during the NEDC test on a chassis dynamometer. The comparative analysis was performed including the urban and extra-urban cycles.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles Under Actual Traffic Conditions in the City of Poznań

2013-03-25
2013-01-0119
The paper presents an analysis of the emission level from a heavy-duty truck of the GVW of 12,000 kg. The exhaust emission tests were performed under actual traffic conditions in the area of Poznań. For the tests portable exhaust emission analyzers SEMTECH DS and AVL Micro Soot Sensor were used. The characteristics of the exhaust emission components have been determined in relation to the engine speed and load as well as vehicle parameters (speed and acceleration). The paper includes an analysis of the engine operating conditions as well as the range of engine speeds and engine loads. The vehicle fuel consumption was also determined through the carbon balance method. Based on the obtained values of the emission of CO, NOx and PM, the emission indexes were determined that provided information on the relation of the measured emissions to the levels specified in the EEV standard. The emissions of all the exhaust components, except NOx were lower than the EEV limits.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 2

2008-06-23
2008-01-1813
The paper presents the test results of the influence of maleate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069), the authors decided to use maleates as oxygenates to obtain greater changes in PM/NOx trade-off than the changes obtained as a result of the use of glycol ethers. It was found that in the NEDC maleates at the same concentration as in the case of glycol ethers ensure more favourable changes of PM/NOx trade-off and, as a matter of fact, caused greater reduction in PM emissions without the growth of NOx emissions, however, at the cost of CO and HC emissions. The tests performed in the FTP-75 confirmed a significantly weaker influence of maleates, both positive (PM) and negative (CO, HC) than in the NEDC. They did not find in both cycles any influence of maleates at the tested concentration upon fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of the Exhaust Emission Level in Combat Vehicles Under Real Operating Conditions

2011-01-19
2011-26-0041
The paper presents the results of tests on a combustion engine of an armored modular vehicle 8x8 Rosomak under combat simulating conditions. For the measurements of the toxic compounds a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS was used. The analyzer allowed a measurement of toxic compounds at the same time measuring the mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. The analysis of the PM emission was performed based on the measurement of the size of the particulate matter (analyzer 3090 EEPS - Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer™ Spectrometer - by TSI Incorporated) and counting of the particles (analyzer Particle Counter by AVL). The measurements of CO, HC, NOx, PM and fuel consumption were performed under the conditions of combat simulation and in the overboost mode. Based on the obtained results, an analysis of the engine and vehicle operation was performed and the on-road and unit exhaust emissions as well as on-road and unit fuel consumption were compared.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gaseous Emissions from a Hybrid Vehicle and a Non-Hybrid Vehicle under Real Driving Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1272
In this study, two vehicles were tested under real driving conditions with gaseous exhaust emissions measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). One of the vehicles featured a hybrid powertrain with a spark ignition internal combustion engine, while the other vehicle featured a non-hybrid (conventional) spark ignition internal combustion engine. Aside from differences in the powertrain, the two test vehicles were of very similar size, weight and aerodynamic profile, meaning that the power demand for a given driving trace was very similar for both vehicles. The test route covered urban conditions (but did include driving on a road with speed limit 90 km/h). The approximate test route distance was 12 km and the average speed was very close to 40 km/h.
Journal Article

The Exhaust Emission from Light Duty Vehicles in Road Test in Urban Traffic

2010-05-05
2010-01-1558
The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles are carried out on a chassis dynamometer in the NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US. Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions. It should be noted that the changes in the methodology of emissions testing should go in the direction where they get closer to the actual road conditions. The paper presents the road test results obtained in an urban congested areas. The analysis of the road tests results (exhaust emissions and fuel consumption) was carried out considering the road conditions (vehicle speed and acceleration). The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the exhaust emissions. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS, Particle Counter by AVL and Particle Seizer EEPS by TSI has been used.
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