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Technical Paper

Hydraulic Pressure Control and Parameter Optimization of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

A general principle scheme of IEHB (Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake system) is proposed, and the working principle of the system is simply introduced in this paper. Considering the structure characteristics of the hydraulic control unit of the system, a kind of time-sharing control strategy is adopted to realize the purpose of independent and precise hydraulic pressure regulation of each wheel brake cylinder in various brake conditions of a vehicle. Because of the strong nonlinear and time varying characteristics of the dynamic brake pressure regulation processes of IEHB, its comprehensive brake performance is mainly affected by temperature, humidity, load change, the structure and control parameters of IEHB, and so on.
Technical Paper

A Time-Dependent Reliability Analysis Method using a Niching Genetic Algorithm

A reliability analysis method is presented for time-dependent systems under uncertainty. A level-crossing problem is considered where the system fails if its maximum response exceeds a specified threshold. The proposed method uses a double-loop optimization algorithm. The inner loop calculates the maximum response in time for a given set of random variables, and transforms a time-dependent problem into a time-independent one. A time integration method is used to calculate the response at discrete times. For each sample function of the response random process, the maximum response is found using a global-local search method consisting of a genetic algorithm (GA), and a gradient-based optimizer. This dynamic response usually exhibits multiple peaks and crosses the allowable response level to form a set of complex limit states, which lead to multiple most probable points (MPPs).
Technical Paper

Development of Intelligent Navigation Systems for Chinese Users

Navigation systems have been recently introduced into vehicles in China, one of the world's largest in-vehicle system markets in the next few years. However, existing Chinese navigation systems either simply translate the system language from other languages to Chinese or do not have intelligent functions which consider the characteristics of Chinese users, their language, or geographic features of mainland China. To solve this problem, this study first reviewed the characteristics of Chinese language (textual part) including its visual (words orientation: horizontal vs. vertical), words simplification, and auditory formats (e.g., dialects) which are different from western languages.
Journal Article

A Simulation and Optimization Methodology for Reliability of Vehicle Fleets

Understanding reliability is critical in design, maintenance and durability analysis of engineering systems. A reliability simulation methodology is presented in this paper for vehicle fleets using limited data. The method can be used to estimate the reliability of non-repairable as well as repairable systems. It can optimally allocate, based on a target system reliability, individual component reliabilities using a multi-objective optimization algorithm. The algorithm establishes a Pareto front that can be used for optimal tradeoff between reliability and the associated cost. The method uses Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the system failure rate and reliability as a function of time. The probability density functions (PDF) of the time between failures for all components of the system are estimated using either limited data or a user-supplied MTBF (mean time between failures) and its coefficient of variation.
Journal Article

A Variable-Size Local Domain Approach to Computer Model Validation in Design Optimization

A common approach to the validation of simulation models focuses on validation throughout the entire design space. A more recent methodology validates designs as they are generated during a simulation-based optimization process. The latter method relies on validating the simulation model in a sequence of local domains. To improve its computational efficiency, this paper proposes an iterative process, where the size and shape of local domains at the current step are determined from a parametric bootstrap methodology involving maximum likelihood estimators of unknown model parameters from the previous step. Validation is carried out in the local domain at each step. The iterative process continues until the local domain does not change from iteration to iteration during the optimization process ensuring that a converged design optimum has been obtained.
Journal Article

Optimal and Robust Design of the PEM Fuel Cell Cathode Gas Diffusion Layer

The cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) is an important component of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Its design parameters, including thickness, porosity and permeability, significantly affect the reactant transport and water management, thus impacting the fuel cell performance. This paper presents an optimization study of the GDL design parameters with the objective of maximizing the current density under a given voltage. A two-dimensional single-phase PEM fuel cell model is used. A multivariable optimization problem is formed to maximize the current density at the cathode under a given electrode voltage with respect to the GDL parameters. In order to reduce the computational effort and find the global optimum among the potential multiple optima, a global metamodel of the actual CFD-based fuel cell simulation, is adaptively generated using radial basis function approximations.