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Technical Paper

Modeling the Dynamics and Lubrication of Three Piece Oil Control Rings in Internal Combustion Engines

The oil control ring is the most critical component for oil consumption and friction from the piston system in internal combustion engines. Three-piece oil control rings are widely used in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. However, the dynamics and lubrication of three piece oil control rings have not been thoroughly studied from the theoretical point of view. In this work, a model was developed to predict side sealing, bore sealing, friction, and asperity contact between rails and groove as well as between rails and the liner in a Three Piece Oil Control Ring (TPOCR). The model couples the axial and twist dynamics of the two rails of TPOCR and the lubrication between two rails and the cylinder bore. Detailed rail/groove and rail/liner interactions were considered. The pressure distribution from oil squeezing and asperity contact between the flanks of the rails and the groove were both considered for rail/groove interaction.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Behavior in the Spark-Ignition Engine Start-Up Process

An analysis method for characterizing fuel behavior during spark-ignition engine starting has been developed and applied to several sets of start-up data. The data sets were acquired from modern production vehicles during room temperature engine start-up. Two different engines, two control schemes, and two engine temperatures (cold and hot) were investigated. A cycle-by-cycle mass balance for the fuel was used to compare the amount of fuel injected with the amount burned or exhausted as unburned hydrocarbons. The difference was measured as “fuel unaccounted for”. The calculation for the amount of fuel burned used an energy release analysis of the cylinder pressure data. The results include an overview of starting behavior and a fuel accounting for each data set Overall, starting occurred quickly with combustion quality, manifold pressure, and engine speed beginning to stabilize by the seventh cycle, on average.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Air Mixing and Diesel Combustion in a Rapid Compression Machine

The influence of charge motion and fuel injection characteristics on diesel combustion was studied in a rapid compression machine (RCM), a research apparatus that simulates the direct-injection diesel in-cylinder environment. An experimental data base was generated in which inlet air flow conditions (temperature, velocity, swirl level) and fuel injection pressure were independently varied. High-speed movies using both direct and shadowgraph photography were taken at selected operating conditions. Cylinder pressure data were analyzed using a one-zone heat release model to calculate ignition delay times, premixed and diffusion burning rates, and cumulative heat release profiles. The photographic analysis provided data on the liquid and vapor penetration rates, fuel-air mixing, ignition characteristics, and flame spreading rates.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Operating Variables and Prechamber Size on Combustion in a Prechamber Stratified-Charge Engine

This paper describes the results of experimental and computer simulation studies of the combustion process in the prechamber three-valve stratified-charge engine. Prechamber and main-chamber pressure data and matched computer simulation calculations are used to determine the effects of variations in overall air/fuel ratio, engine speed and load, and prechamber volume and orifice diameter on the parameters which define the combustion process (spark advance for optimum torque, ignition delay, combustion duration), on cylinder pressure diagrams (mean main-chamber pressure, mean pressure difference across the orifice, and cycle-by-cycle pressure fluctuations) and on exhaust emissions. General correlations are derived from the data for the shape of the combustion rate profile and the extent of the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a One-Zone Burn-Rate Analysis Procedure Using Production SI Engine Pressure Data

A single-zone burn-rate analysis based on measured cylinder pressure data proposed by Gatowski et al. in 1984 was evaluated over the full load and speed range of a spark-ignition engine. The analysis, which determines the fuel mass burning rate based on the First Law of Thermodynamics, includes sub-models for the effects of residual fraction, heat transfer, and crevices. Each of these sub-models was assessed and calibrated. Cylinder pressure data over the full engine operating range obtained from two different engines were used to examine the robustness of the analysis. The sensitivity of predictions to the parameters wall temperature, heat transfer model coefficients and exponent, swirl ratio, motoring polytropic constant, in-cylinder mass, and to uncertainty in pressure data was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Predicting NOx Emissions and Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Spark-Ignition Engines

An improved theoretical model that predicts the nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust of a spark-ignition engine has been evaluated over a wide range of fuel-air ratios, percentage of exhaust gas recycled, and engine speed. Experiments were carried out in a standard CFR single-cylinder engine. Comparison of the measured and calculated exhaust nitric oxide concentrations shows good agreement over all operating conditions. It is shown that in lean mixtures, nitric oxide concentrations freeze early in the expansion stroke. For rich mixtures, freezing occurs later after all the charge has been burned and substantial nitric oxide decomposition takes place. In addition, effects of exhaust gas recirculation on flame speed, ignition delay, and cycle-to-cycle pressure variations were evaluated. A simple model relating cycle-to-cycle variations with changes in ignition delay is presented.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Emissions and Performance Characteristics of a Wankel Engine

A performance model of a Wankel engine is developed which performs a leakage mass balance, accounts for heat transfer and flame quenching, and predicts the mass fraction burned as a function of chamber pressure. Experiments were performed on a production Wankel engine to obtain chamber pressure-time diagrams, and engine performance and emissions data. Model predictions of mass burned, global heat transfer, and hydrocarbon emission gave good agreement with measurements. Predictions of oxides of nitrogen are higher than measurements, especially at low loads. This is thought to be due to the adiabatic core gas assumption in the model. The need for a Wankel boundary layer study is identified.
Technical Paper

Computer Models For Evaluating Premixed and Disc Wankel Engine Performance

This paper describes two types of computer models which have been developed to analyze the performance of both premixed-charge and direct-injection stratified-charge Wankel engines. The models are based on a thermodynamic analysis of the contents of the engine's chambers. In the first type of model, the rate of combustion is predicted from measured chamber pressure by use of a heat release analysis. The analysis includes heat transfer to the chamber walls, work transfer to the rotor, enthalpy loss due to flows into crevices and due to leakage flows into adjacent chambers, and enthalpy gain due to fuel injection. The second type of computer model may be used to predict the chamber pressure during a complete engine cycle. From the predicted chamber pressure, the overall engine performance parameters are calculated. The rate of fuel burning as an algebraic function of crank angle is specified.
Technical Paper

Effects of Valve-Shrouding and Squish on Combustion in a Spark-ignition Engine

The effects of two commonly used methods for altering the combustion process in a spark-ignition engine are examined using pressure measurements and high-speed schlieren photography. A square cross-section visualization engine with two quartz sidewalls was used to allow optical access over the entire four-stroke operating cycle. Engine operation with a shrouded intake valve, which changed the intake-generated flow, and with a stepped piston, which changed the compression-generated flow, are compared to a base condition. In addition, cyclic variations in burning are examined for all cases.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines

The Octane Index (OI) relates a fuel's knocking characteristics to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions. However, since the OI varies substantially with the engine operating conditions, it is typically measured at two standard conditions: the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests. These tests are intended to bracket the knock-limited operating range, and the OI is taken to be a weighted average of RON and MON: OI = K MON + (1-K) RON where K is the weighing factor. When the tests were established, K was approximately 0.5. However, recent tests with modern engines have found that K is now negative, indicating that the RON and MON tests no longer bracket the knock-limited operating conditions. Experiments were performed to measure the OI of different fuels in a modern engine to better understand the role of fuel sensitivity (RON-MON) on knock limits.
Technical Paper

Knock Behavior of a Lean-Burn, H2 and CO Enhanced, SI Gasoline Engine Concept

Experiments were performed to identify the knock trends of lean hydrocarbon-air mixtures, and such mixtures enhanced with hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). These enhanced mixtures simulated 15% and 30% of the engine's gasoline being reformed in a plasmatron fuel reformer [1]. Knock trends were determined by measuring the octane number (ON) of the primary reference fuel (mixture of isooctane and n-heptane) supplied to the engine that just produced audible knock. Experimental results show that leaner operation does not decrease the knock tendency of an engine under conditions where a fixed output torque is maintained; rather it slightly increases the octane requirement. The knock tendency does decrease with lean operation when the intake pressure is held constant, but engine torque is then reduced.
Technical Paper

Performance Maps of Turbocharged SI Engines with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends: Torque, Efficiency, Compression Ratio, Knock Limits, and Octane

1 Downsizing and turbocharging a spark-ignited engine is becoming an important strategy in the engine industry for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines. Through boosting the air flow, the torque is increased, the engine can thus be downsized, engine friction is reduced in both absolute and relative terms, and engine efficiency is increased. However knock onset with a given octane rating fuel limits both compression ratio and boost levels. This paper explores the operating limits of a turbocharged engine, with various gasoline-ethanol blends, and the interaction between compression ratio, boost levels, and spark retard, to achieve significant increases in maximum engine mean effective pressure and efficiency.