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Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) under Transient and CPF Active Regeneration Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1046
In this study, a DOC catalyst was experimentally studied in an engine test cell with a2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel and a production aftertreatment system. The test matrix consisted of steady state, active regeneration with in-cylinder fuel dosing and transient conditions. Conversion efficiencies of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, and NO were quantified under each condition. A previously developed high-fidelity DOC model capable of predicting both steady state and transient active regeneration gaseous emissions was calibrated to the experimental data. The model consists of a single 1D channel where mass and energy balance equations were solved for both surface and bulk gas regions. The steady-state data were used to identify the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for CO, NO and HC oxidation, while the steady-state active regeneration data were used to identify the inhibition factors. The transient data were used to simulate the thermal response of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Model for Simulation of the Oxidation of Particulate Matter and Gaseous Species During Passive Oxidation and Active Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-1574
Numerical modeling of aftertreatment systems has been proven to reduce development time as well as to facilitate understanding of the internal physical and chemical processes occurring during different operating conditions. Such a numerical model for a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) was developed in this research work which has been improved from an existing numerical model briefly described in reference. The focus of this CPF model was to predict the effect of the catalyst on the gaseous species concentrations and to develop particulate matter (PM) filtration and oxidation models for the PM cake layer and substrate wall so as to develop an overall model that accurately predicts the pressure drop and PM oxidized during passive oxidation and active regeneration. Descriptions of the governing equations and corresponding numerical methods used with relevant boundary conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter to Estimate NO, NO2, Hydrocarbon and Temperatures in a DOC during Active Regeneration and Under Steady State Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1059
Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) are used on heavy duty diesel engine applications and experience large internal temperature variations from 150 to 600°C. The DOC oxidizes the CO and HC in the exhaust to CO2 and H2O and oxidizes NO to NO2. The oxidation reactions are functions of its internal temperatures. Hence, accurate estimation of internal temperatures is important both for onboard diagnostic and aftertreatment closed loop control strategies. This paper focuses on the development of a reduced order model and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) state estimator for a DOC. The reduced order model simulation results are compared to experimental data. This is important since the reduced order model is used in the EKF estimator to predict the CO, NO, NO2 and HC concentrations in the DOC and at the outlet. The estimator was exercised using transient drive cycle engine data. The closed loop EKF improves the temperature estimate inside the DOC compared to the open loop estimator.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Exhaust Flow Rate and Temperature Effects on the Particulate Matter Thermal Oxidation Occurring during the Active Regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2015-04-14
2015-01-1044
Numerical models of aftertreatment devices are increasingly becoming indispensable tools in the development of aftertreatment systems that enable modern diesel engines to comply with exhaust emissions regulations while minimizing the cost and development time involved. Such a numerical model was developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU) [1] and demonstrated to be able to simulate the experimental data [2] in predicting the characteristic pressure drop and PM mass retained during passive oxidation [3] and active regeneration [4] of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) on a Cummins ISL engine. One of the critical aspects of a calibrated numerical model is its usability - in other words, how useful is the model in predicting the pressure drop and the PM mass retained in another particulate filter on a different engine without the need for extensive recalibration.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Results Comparing Two Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - Catalyzed Particulate Filter Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0484
Steady-state particulate loading experiments were conducted on an advanced production catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), both with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). A heavy-duty diesel engine was used for this study with the experiments conducted at 20, 40, 60 and 75 % of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm). The data obtained from these experiments were used and are necessary for calibrating the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. These experimental and modeling results were compared to previous research conducted at MTU that used the same engine but an earlier development version of the combination of DOC and CPF. The motivation for the comparison of the two systems was to determine whether the reformulated production catalysts performed as good or better than the early development catalysts. The results were compared to understand the filtration and oxidation differences between the two DOC+CPF and the CPF-only aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Filtration and Oxidation Characteristics of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-1123
An experimental and modeling study was conducted to study the passive regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) by the oxidation of particulate matter (PM) via thermal and Nitrogen dioxide/temperature-assisted means. Emissions data in the exhaust of a John Deere 6.8 liter, turbocharged and after-cooled engine with a low-pressure loop EGR and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) - catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in the exhaust system was measured and used for this study. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the DOC, CPF and DOC+CPF configurations at various engine speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of an Advanced Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filter

2008-04-14
2008-01-0622
A Cummins ISB 5.9 liter medium-duty engine with cooled EGR has been used to study an early extrusion of an advanced ceramic uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Data for the advanced ceramic material (ACM) and an uncatalyzed cordierite filter of similar dimensions are presented. Pressure drop data as a function of mass loadings (0, 4, and 6 grams of particulate matter (PM) per liter of filter volume) for various flow rate/temperature combinations (0.115 - 0.187 kg/sec and 240 - 375 °C) based upon loads of 15, 25, 40 and 60% of full engine load (684 N-m) at 2300 rpm are presented. The data obtained from these experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer computer model developed previously at MTU. Clean wall permeability determined from the model calibration for the ACM was 5.0e-13 m2 as compared to 3.0e-13 m2 for cordierite.
Journal Article

Model-Based Estimation and Control System Development in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1324
In this paper, a model-based linear estimator and a non-linear control law for an Fe-zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for heavy duty diesel engine applications is presented. The novel aspect of this work is that the relevant species, NO, NO2 and NH3 are estimated and controlled independently. The ability to target NH3 slip is important not only to minimize urea consumption, but also to reduce this unregulated emission. Being able to discriminate between NO and NO2 is important for two reasons. First, recent Fe-zeolite catalyst studies suggest that NOx reduction is highly favored by the NO 2 based reactions. Second, NO2 is more toxic than NO to both the environment and human health. The estimator and control law are based on a 4-state model of the urea-SCR plant. A linearized version of the model is used for state estimation while the full nonlinear model is used for control design.
Technical Paper

The Filtration, Oxidation and Pressure Drop Characteristics of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration – A 1D Modeling Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-1274
Active regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is affected by a number of parameters specifically particulate matter loading and inlet temperature. The MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model [1] was used to analyze these effects on the pressure drop, oxidation and filtration characteristics of a CPF during active regeneration. In addition, modeling results for post loading experiments were analyzed to understand the difference between loading a clean filter as compared to a partially regenerated filter. Experimental data obtained with a production Cummins regenerative particulate filter for loading, active regenerations and post loading experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. The model predicted results are compared with the experimental data and were analyzed to understand the CPF characteristics during active regeneration at 1.1, 2.2 and 4.1 g/L particulate matter (PM) loading and CPF inlet temperatures of 525, 550 and 600°C.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D CPF Model to Simulate Active Regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-1283
A quasi-steady 1-dimensional computer model of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) capable of simulating active regeneration of the CPF via diesel fuel injection upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or other means to increase the exhaust gas temperature has been developed. This model is capable of predicting gaseous species concentrations (HC's, CO, NO and NO2) and exhaust gas temperatures within and after the CPF, for given input values of gaseous species and PM concentrations before the CPF and other inlet variables such as time-varying temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the CPF and volumetric flow rate of exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Diesel Particulate Trap Performance During Loading and Regeneration

2002-03-04
2002-01-1019
A 2-dimensional numerical model (MTU-FILTER) for a single channel of a honeycomb ceramic diesel particulate trap has been developed. The mathematical modeling of the filtration, flow, heat transfer and regeneration behavior of the particulate trap is described. Numerical results for the pressure drop and particulate mass were compared with existing experimental results. Parametric studies of the diesel particulate trap were carried out. The effects of trap size and inlet temperature on the trap performance are studied using the trap model. An approximate 2-dimensional analytical solution to the simplified Navier-Stokes equations was used to calculate the velocity field of the exhaust flow in the inlet and outlet channels. Assuming a similarity velocity profile in the channels, the 2-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are approximated by 1-dimenisonal conservation equations, which is similar to those first developed by Bissett.
Technical Paper

Development of the Enhanced Vehicle and Engine Cooling System Simulation and Application to Active Cooling Control

2005-04-11
2005-01-0697
The increasing complexity of vehicle engine cooling systems results in additional system interactions. Design and evaluation of such systems and related interactions requires a fully coupled detailed engine and cooling system model. The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) developed at Michigan Technological University was enhanced by linking with GT-POWER for the engine/cycle analysis model. Enhanced VECSS (E-VECSS) predicts the effects of cooling system performance on engine performance including accessory power and fuel conversion efficiency. Along with the engine cycle, modeled components include the engine manifolds, turbocharger, radiator, charge-air-cooler, engine oil circuit, oil cooler, cab heater, coolant pump, thermostat, and fan. This tool was then applied to develop and simulate an actively controlled electric cooling system for a 12.7 liter diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A One-Dimensional Computational Model for Studying the Filtration and Regeneration Characteristics of a Catalyzed Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter

2003-03-03
2003-01-0841
A one-dimensional, two layer computational model was developed to predict the behavior of a clean and particulate-loaded catalyzed wall-flow diesel particulate filter (CPF). The model included the mechanisms of particle deposition inside the CPF porous wall and on the CPF wall surface, the exhaust flow field and temperature field inside the CPF, as well as the particulate catalytic oxidation mechanisms accounting for the catalyst-assisted particulate oxidation by the catalytic coating in addition to the conventional particulate thermal oxidation. The paper also develops the methodology for calibrating and validating the model with experimental data. Steady state loading experiments were performed to calibrate and validate the model.
Technical Paper

A Controlled EGR Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0076
In order to comply with 2002 EPA emissions regulations, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) will be used by heavy duty (HD) diesel engine manufacturers as the primary means to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A feedforward controlled EGR cooling system with a secondary electric water pump and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback has been designed to cool the recirculated exhaust gas in order to better realize the benefits of EGR without overcooling the exhaust gas since overcooling leads to the fouling of the EGR cooler with acidic residues. A system without a variable controlled coolant flow rate is not able to achieve these goals because the exhaust temperature and the EGR schedule vary significantly, especially under transient and warm-up operating conditions. Simulation results presented in this paper have been determined using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) software, which has been developed and validated using actual engine data.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Model Based Feedback Controlled Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Applications Using a Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0336
A thermal management system for heavy duty diesel engines is presented for maintaining acceptable and constant engine temperatures over a wide range of operational conditions. It consists of a computer controlled variable speed coolant pump, a position controlled thermostat, and a model-based control strategy. An experimentally validated, diesel engine cooling system simulation was used to demonstrate the thermal management system's capability to reduce power consumption. The controller was evaluated using a variety of operating scenarios across a wide range of loads, vehicle speeds, and ambient temperatures. Three metrics were used to assess the effects of the computer controlled system: engine temperature, energy savings, and cab temperature. The proposed control system provided very good control over the engine coolant temperatures while maintaining engine metal temperatures within a desired range.
Technical Paper

The Effects of a Porous Ceramic Particulate Trap on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions

1983-02-01
830457
Physical, chemical, and biological characterization data for the particulate emissions from a Caterpillar 3208 diesel engine with and without Corning porous ceramic particulate traps are presented. Measurements made at EPA modes 3,4,5,9,lO and 11 include total hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and total particulate matter emissions including the solid fraction (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfate fraction (SO4), Chemical character was defined by fractionation of the SOF while biological character was defined by analysis of Ames Salmonella/ microsome bioassay data. The trap produced a wide range of total particulate reduction efficiencies (0-97%) depending on the character of the particulate. The chemical character of the SOF was significantly changed through the trap as was the biological character. The mutagenic specific activity of the SOF was generally increased through the trap but this was offset by a decrease in SOF mass emissions.
Technical Paper

A Computer Heat Transfer and Hydrocarbon Adsorption Model for Predicting Diesel Particulate Emissions in Dilution Tunnels

1982-02-01
821218
The prediction of particulate concentrations in dlesel exhaust diluted in a dilution tunnel has been achieved using a computer model. The particulate collection filter temperature, soluble organic fraction (SOF) and solids fraction (SOL) of diesel particulate matter were predicted based on exhaust system and dilution tunnel variables that could be measured on a real-time basis. The SOF was assumed to be formed by adsorption of gaseous hydrocarbons onto the solids fraction. The accuracy of the model was determined by comparison to experimentally measured values. The model was able to predict SOF concentrations within 35%, filter temperatures within 3°G, and particulate (SOF + SOL) concentrations within 25% of measured values. A parametric study was conducted using the developed model; and improved test procedures, dilution tunnel dimensions, and federal testing guidelines were suggested.
Technical Paper

A Model and the Methodology for Determining Wear Particle Generation Rate and Filter Efficiency in a Diesel Engine Using Ferrography

1982-02-01
821195
Monitoring of the wear rate of a diesel engine will yield valuable information regarding the wear mechanism within a diesel engine and ultimately will improve the predictions of failing engines and/or their components to allow preventive maintenance which will prolong the life of the engine. A mathematical model was developed that describes the wear particle concentration as a function of time in a diesel engine. This model contains engine and lubrication system parameters that determine the concentration of wear particles in the engine sump. These variables are the oil system volume, oil flow rate, particle generation rate, filtering efficiency and the initial particle concentration. The model has been employed to study the wear particle concentrations in the sump and the mass of particles in the filter for the Cummins VT-903 diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Advances in Quantitative Analytical Ferrography and the Evaluation of a High Gradient Magnetic Separator for the Study of Diesel Engine Wear

1982-02-01
821194
Several sources of variation in quantitative analytical ferrography are investigated. A standard ferrography analysis procedure is developed. Normalization of ferrographic data to account for the amount of oil used to make the ferrograms is discussed. Procedures to minimize the errors involved with calculating three quantitative ferrography parameters: the area covered by the large particles, AL (%/ml of oil), the area covered by the small particles, AS (%/ml of oil) and Area Under the Curve, AUC, (%-mm/ml of oil) are outlined. Ferrographic data are presented which show that the volume and dilution ratio of the oil sample being analyzed have a major effect on the accuracy of the analysis. Several variables which influence the area covered readings of the particle deposit on a ferrogram are discussed. The accuracy of quantitative analytical ferrography is assessed.
Technical Paper

A Computer Cooling System Study of a Diesel Powered Truck for Control of Transient Coolant, Oil and Cab Temperatures

1982-02-01
821049
A Vehicle-Engine-Cooling (VEC) system computer simulation model was used to study the transient performance of control devices and their temperature settings on oil, coolant and cab temperatures. The truck used in the study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab over chassis heavy-duty vehicle equipped with a standard cab heater, a Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine with a McCord radiator and standard cooling system components and aftercooler. Input data from several portions of a Columbus to Bloomington, Indiana route were used from the Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) program to determine engine and vehicle operating conditions for the VEC system computer simulation model. The control devices investigated were the standard thermostat, the Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system. The effect of shutterstat location on shutter performance along with thermostat, shutter and fan activation temperature settings were investigated for ambient temperatures of 32, 85 and 100°F.
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