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Technical Paper

Strategies for Optimizing Headlamp Illumination and Visibility Along Curves

2006-04-03
2006-01-0489
A field study to measure peripheral visual performance under various headlamp conditions typical of halogen and high intensity discharge (HID) headlamps and including functions that could be incorporated in advanced forward-lighting systems (AFS), was conducted. The study simulated an approach of left- and right-hand turns. Targets of varying size were located at different locations along the edges of the curves, and different headlamp illumination conditions were used. Reaction times and missed targets were measured. The results were consistent with previously published studies showing a benefit of increased peripheral illumination commonly found in HID headlamps and with AFS systems on peripheral target detection.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of High-Intensity Discharge Automotive Forward Lighting

2001-03-05
2001-01-0298
An experimental field investigation is described that compares off-axis (peripheral) visual performance between high-intensity discharge (HID) forward lighting and halogen systems. The goal of the investigation is to determine if the higher off-axis intensity levels combined with the spectral properties of HID lamps provide any benefits to visual performance over conventional tungsten halogen lamps. In this study three current production European headlamp systems, one HID and two halogen, are compared. These systems are used to illuminate a fixed scene. Subjects perform a visual tracking task, cognitively similar to driving, while simultaneously small targets located at various angles in the periphery are activated. Subjects release a switch upon detection and reaction times and missed signals are measured.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Glare on Visual Performance Under Reduced Headlamp Illumination

2005-04-11
2005-01-0447
Target detection experiments were performed to examine the possibility of dimming forward lighting in lit areas while maintaining the drivers' visual performance, both with and without oncoming headlamp glare. These experimental results suggested that target detection distance was reduced as the eccentricity angle of targets increases; detection distance was reduced by up to 30 m with oncoming glare; and forward lighting systems only helped drivers detect targets located on the opponent side of oncoming glare at the highest eccentricity. These results implied that forward lighting systems can be dimmed to reduce glare without significantly impairing drivers' performance if fixed street lighting provides sufficient illuminance, therefore confirming the feasibility of AFS as a glare reduction measure.
Technical Paper

Discomfort and Disability Glare from Halogen and HID Headlamp Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0010
Illumination from high intensity discharge (HID) headlamps differs from halogen headlamp illumination in two important ways: HID headlamps have higher overall light output and a spectral power distribution that differs from halogen headlamps. These differences have been hypothesized to result in superior visibility with HID headlamps and most particularly in the periphery. These same factors, though, have also been conjectured to result in increased glare for drivers facing HID headlamps in oncoming driving situations. The present paper outlines a series of experimental investigations using halogen, HID, and blue-filtered halogen illumination to measure their relative impact on discomfort glare and disability glare under conditions matching those that might be experienced by oncoming drivers at night. Discomfort glare is determined using the scale devised by de Boer; disability glare is determined by measuring subjects' contrast sensitivity under different lighting conditions.
Technical Paper

Visual Benefits of High-Intensity Discharge Automotive Forward Lighting

2002-03-04
2002-01-0259
Recent studies have shown that high-intensity discharge (HID) headlamps provide visual benefits to the vehicle operator that may lead to greater nighttime driving safety.[1] This paper is an extension of that work to further examine the role of beam pattern. An experimental field investigation is described that explores the visual performance aspects of HID forward lighting systems meeting North American beam pattern standards. This study further explores and quantifies the overall benefits of HID systems by direct comparison to conventional halogen systems. It examines and compares two systems producing typical Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1383 beam patterns. Subjects perform a visual tracking task, cognitively similar to driving, while seated in the driver's seat of a test vehicle. Simultaneously, small targets located at various angles in the periphery are activated, with subjects releasing a switch upon detection so that reaction times can be measured.
Technical Paper

Subjective Color Preferences of Common Road Sign Materials Under Headlamp Bulb Illumination

2002-03-04
2002-01-0261
Recently, there has been a proliferation of commercially available lamps with spectral light output differing from conventional halogen lamps for use in vehicle headlighting systems. For the last 20 to 30 years halogen lamps have been used as the standard source in most headlamp applications. These lamps produce the familiar blackbody-like continuous-spectrum output light. In the last ten years, high-intensity discharge (HID) light sources have come onto the market place with their characteristic discrete spectra and higher correlated color temperature (CCT). Even more recently, coated “blue” halogen lamps have become available which reduce the amount of long-wavelength light and shift the light output to higher CCTs. Currently, halogen lamps are under development that have glass envelopes doped with neodymium, which acts similarly to the coated lamps in reducing long-wavelength light and shifting the CCT to higher values.
Technical Paper

Discomfort Glare from Headlamps: Interactions Among Spectrum, Control of Gaze and Background Light Level

2003-03-03
2003-01-0296
Discomfort glare while driving at night might have implications for long-term fatigue and ultimately, driving performance and safety. The intensity of oncoming headlights, their spectral power distribution, the location of the lights in the field of view, and the ambient illumination conditions can all impact feelings of discomfort while driving at night. Not surprisingly, light sources with higher intensities are perceived as more glaring. Similarly, perceptions of discomfort increase as the ambient lighting conditions are reduced, and as the glare sources are located closer to the line of sight. Recent research also appears to demonstrate the role of short-wavelength light in contributing to the discomfort glare response. The present paper outlines a laboratory study to probe the effects of ambient light level, spectral power distribution, and control of gaze on discomfort glare, and potential interactions among these factors.
Technical Paper

Spectral Effects of High-Intensity Discharge Automotive Forward Lighting on Visual Performance

2003-03-03
2003-01-0559
Recent studies have shown that high-intensity discharge (HID) headlamps provide visual benefits to the vehicle operator that may lead to increased nighttime driving safety. An experimental field investigation is described that further investigates the visual performance aspects of HID forward lighting systems to isolate and examine the role of lamp spectral distribution under realistic nighttime driving conditions. This study examines lamp spectral distribution by direct comparison of HID source spectra to one that simulates a conventional halogen source. Two additional lamp spectra are also included in this study, a “cool” distribution with a high percentage of short wavelength visible light and a “warm” distribution with a high percentage of long wavelength visible light. Subjects perform a visual tracking task, cognitively similar to driving, while seated in the driver's seat of a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Headlamp Parameters and Glare

2004-03-08
2004-01-1280
New headlamp sources and optical designs are creating new glare scenarios on today's roadways. Recent evidence suggests that the spectral content of vehicle forward lighting may play a role in the glare that it produces. Additionally, there is concern that the decreasing size of some headlamp systems may be contributing to glare. This paper describes a field experiment designed to take a fresh look at headlamp glare, both disability and discomfort, by exploring the role of illuminance, spectrum, and size and determining the relative magnitude of each as it affects oncoming glare. Subjects seated in a test vehicle were exposed to small targets at various angles. Test glare headlamps were positioned 50 m in front of the subject at an angle of 5°, simulating oncoming traffic. The glare intensity at the subject's eye, the spectrum of the glare source (among high intensity discharge, halogen, and blue filtered), and the glare source size were systematically varied.
Technical Paper

Headlamp Illumination and Glare: An Approach to Predicting Peripheral Visibility

2004-03-08
2004-01-1094
Peripheral visibility is an important aspect of driving but one that is not understood as robustly as on-axis visibility. The present paper summarizes results from a series of field studies investigating the effect of headlamp illumination and of oncoming headlamp glare on the speed and accuracy of response to small targets located in the visual periphery. These experiments used headlamp sets providing differing amounts of illumination on targets of varying reflectance, located throughout the field of view. Reaction times to the onset of targets and the percentage of missed targets were measured. The characteristics and locations of the targets and experimental geometry were similar in each study as were the subject demographic characteristics, so that results were very consistent among each of the studies.
Technical Paper

Headlight Glare Exposure and Recovery

2005-04-11
2005-01-1573
There is concern that the greater light output and increased beam pattern widths of some headlamp systems may be resulting in higher glare exposures to drivers for longer times. A set of experiments is described that examines how headlamp glare exposure affects recovery time and ratings of discomfort. Theoretical glare exposures were examined to study different aspects of glare, namely peak glare illuminance and total glare dosage. Glare exposures corresponding to representative tungsten halogen (TH) and high intensity discharge (HID) systems were also examined. It was found that the shape of the glare profile had a significant effect on recovery time. A larger dose of glare (product of illuminance and exposure time) results in a longer recovery time. It was also found that discomfort ratings are dependent on glare profile, with greater discomfort being proportional to larger peak illuminances. Surprisingly, no effect of glare duration or dosage was found on discomfort.
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