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Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of 12V Lead-Acid Battery for Stop-Start Technology

2017-03-28
2017-01-1211
As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of stop-start technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Stop-start technology is widespread in Europe due to high fuel prices and due to stringent EU CO2 emissions standards beginning in 2012. Stop-start has recently appeared as a standard equipment option on high-volume vehicles like the Chevrolet Malibu, Ford Fusion, Chrysler 200, Jeep Cherokee, and Ram 1500 truck. EPA has included stop-start technology in its assessment of CO2-reducing technologies available for compliance with the standards. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. The introduction of stop-start has stimulated development of 12-volt battery systems capable of providing the enhanced performance and cycle life durability that it requires.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0413
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ).
Journal Article

Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

2018-04-03
2018-01-0433
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0319
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Technical Paper

Real-World Emission Modeling and Validations Using PEMS and GPS Vehicle Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0757
Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) are used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure gaseous and particulate mass emissions from vehicles in normal, in-use, on-the-road operation to support many of its programs, including assessing mobile source emissions compliance, emissions factor assessment for in-use fleet modeling, and collection of in-use vehicle operational data to support vehicle simulation modeling programs. This paper discusses EPA’s use of Global Positioning System (GPS) measured altitude data and electronically logged vehicle speed data to provide real-world road grade data for use as an input into the Gamma Technologies GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model. The GPS measured altitudes and the CAN vehicle speed data were filtered and smoothed to calculate the road grades by using open-source Python code and associated packages.
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