Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model on Physiological Processes of Candidate Crops in CEEF

1996-07-01
961499
A mathematical model was developed in order to predict quantities of CO2 and O2 gas exchange, transpiration, biomass production, food production and nutrient absorption by candidate crops in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) in which material recycling in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) is to be made. This model includes effects of physical parameters such as light intensity, air temperature, humidity and atmospheric CO2 concentration on these processes and plant aging effect on these processes. Using results from experiments in which candidate crops were grown under controlled environment and data from literature, mathematical models for each crop was given physiological parameters. Then, changes in biomass and food accumulation, gas exchange and transpiration of each crop with time were calculated.
Technical Paper

Performance Test Data of Wet Oxidation Plant for CEEF - CEEF: Controlled Ecology Experiment Facilities

1996-07-01
961558
This waste management process must be capable of treating the various wastes generated within Controlled Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) and operate effectively in and environment in which carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, salts, and other important minerals, exit. The catalytic Wet Oxidation Process (W/O Process) is regarded to be the most feasible candidate process for such waste management. This paper clarifies the performance data and the design data of the actual device. By applying these comparison data, for example, water balance, insoluble part balance, organic part balance, and inorganic balance for CEEF, we were also able to confirm the usefulness and applicability of the actual Wet Oxidation Device.
Technical Paper

Material Circulation Design Based on Organic Matter Analysis of Edible and Inedible Parts of Plants for CEEF

1996-07-01
961414
In order to verify the material circulation design for a Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities, CEEF, the organic element analysis of edible and inedible parts of the major candidate plants (rice, soybean, sesame and komatsuna (Brassica campestris)) has been carried out experimentally and by using food analysis data. In the experiment, rice, soybean and sesame were cultivated by hydroponics and soil culture for this purpose. The organic element analysis data from the food analysis data were made using empirical chemical equations formulated as to major nutriments by Volk and Rummel. The experimental results showed good agreement with those obtained from the food analysis data. Komatsuna has high nitrogen content. Inedible parts of rice, soybean and sesame have almost the same constituent ratio. The edible part of soybean contains five times as much nitrogen as its inedible part. Rice shows no significant difference between the edible and inedible parts.
Technical Paper

Nitrogen Fixation System as a CELSS Subsystem for CEEF

1996-07-01
961418
The Nitrogen Fixation System (NFS) which produces ammonia and nitric acid from nitrogen and water has been developed. The NFS is one essential part of material circulation system of the CEEF (Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility. Basically, physico-chemical and some new technologies are utilized as elemental processes in the NFS. Low pressure ammonia synthesis, ammonia enrichment with PSA and water electrolysis with SPE are such new technologies. We designed and installed the NFS as a subsystem of CEEF. The capacity of the NFS is 125g/day as fixed nitrogen. First operation of NFS is expected to be done early fiscal year of 1996 in CEEF.
Technical Paper

Construction of CEEF is Just Started CEEF:Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

1995-07-01
951584
Construction of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is started in Rokkasho village of Aomori prefecture, the northern part of Honshu island in Japan. CEEF consist of Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and Closed Geo-Hydrosphere Experiment Facility (CGEF) with capability to simulate ecological systems containing plants, animals, human, trees and sea living things. These biospecies are selected according to experimental plans and are maintained their lives in controlled environments. Recyclings of materials circulating in the closed system of CEEF are made mainly utilizing physical chemical treatments. The construction of CEEF will be completed by 1998. This paper mainly describes design of CPEF.
Technical Paper

Desorbing Test on Trace Contaminants for the Japanese Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

1995-07-01
951582
In the closed environments, removal of trace contaminants generated from persons, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level. We conducted the fundamental tests in order to confirm design of TCCA (Trace Contaminants Control Assembly) for Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), and obtained the following results; 1) The palladium-on-alumina catalyst is suitable for CO, CH4, C2H4 conversion at temperature lower than 400°C. 2) The alkali impregnated AC (activated charcoal) is effective for NO2, SO2 removal and prevents catalyst poisoning from SO2. 3) The active-desorbing conducted by hot air blow-throw an AC is effective for C2H5OH, CH2Cl2 desorbing. We discuss the fundamental test and design conditions for TCCA.
Technical Paper

Study for Minimizing of Toxic Gaseous Waste in Wet Oxidation Process

1995-07-01
951579
Compared with other applicable processes such as incineration, the catalytic wet oxidation process is considered to be the most practically applicable waste treatment process for the CELSS. In this report, the quantity of carbon monoxide generated in the wet oxidation process is identified and a measure for carbon monoxide minimization is discussed. As a result of a bench test, it became apparent that a non-negligible quantity of carbon monoxide could be generated in the catalytic wet oxidation process. However, it can be expected that this CO content will be reduced to a safe level by applying the wet oxidation process catalyst reactor to CO oxidation.
Technical Paper

Material Flow Simulation Software for CEEF: Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

1995-07-01
951537
IES (Institute for Environmental Sciences) is now constructing CEEF at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. The simulation for material flow is made based on a system model of CEEF, which includes one person and 7 plant species of Rice, Soybean, Komatsuna, Sesame, Tomato, Potato and Buckwheat. In this simulation software, plants, human and their support systems are mathematically defined and material flows such as O2, N2, CO2, waters, fertilizers and organic matters are computed. This software simulates only material flow and but does not simulate thermal dynamics of the environment. The simulation result showed reasonable material flows in a closed system.
Technical Paper

TRACE CONTAMINANTS CONTROL ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE JAPANESE CLOSED ECOLOGY EXPERIMENT FACILITIES

1994-06-01
941446
In the closed environments such as manned space station, it is necessary to remove contaminant gas to keep a suitable environment. Removal of gaseous contaminants generated from crew, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (abbreviated as CEEF). CEEF consist of three modules for habitat, animal and plant, the supporting facilities for each module and a plant cultivation facility. CEEF are scheduled to be constructed from 1994 in Aomori Prefecture, northern part of Japan. For designing Trace Contaminant Control Assembly (TCCA) for CEEF, the following six (6) trace contaminants have been selected as major contaminant gas in CEEF; Ammonia (NH3) Methane (CH4) Ethylene (C2H4) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Ethylene is well-known as an aggressive contaminant to plant growth and maturity.
Technical Paper

A Study on Wet-Oxidation Waste Management Process Design

1994-06-01
941498
The catalytic Wet-Oxidation process is the most feasible candidate for the waste management process of CELSS in comparison with other applicable technologies such as dry incineration, vapor compression distillation, etc. In this report we try and discuss the design of a Wet-Oxidation Waste Management Process which supports 1 person's life in a closed system. The proposed Wet-Oxidation Waste Management process treats the waste by a two-step reaction. Planned capacity is approximately 2.5kg- dry/day. A design concept, schematic flow and basic configuration of Wet-Oxidation apparatus are considered and discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Elements Recycled in the Vegetable Supplying System of a Lunar Base CELSS

1994-06-01
941497
Selected vegetables for life support are continuously produced in the lunar farming module. Inedible parts of the vegetables are decomposed and provided as the fertilizer elements for the next vegetables. In this report, contained elements in their inedible mass for recyclingare discussed for each of the four vegetables. Elements and concentration of cultural liquid which are required by each vegetable are surveyed as well. Adjustment of decomposition liquid is discussed in view of transforming inedible vegetable to cultural liquid. Authors are proposing wet oxidization as one of the decomposition methods for these inedible parts. Some adjusting sub-system is necessary here, since elements and their concentration in decomposition liquid is not enough to reproduce vegetables. This report aims to clarify the composition of a vegetable production system for an eight-member
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery System in a CEEF

1994-06-01
941499
We propose a new recovery system for NaCl from human urine. The system has an electrodialysis (ED) part and a crystallization part. Separation and concentration characteristics of the system are discussed for fundamental experiments of the ED and crystallization parts. Concentrated NaCl-KCl mixed solution is obtained using the ED process from simulated oxidized urine and sweat which include Ca2+ and S042- ions. Then, the crystallization process is used to separate about 80% of the NaCl from the ED treated solution. The experimental studies indicate that the mineral recovery system we proposed can recover NaCl from waste water of a CEEF.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis for the Small Positive Pressure Control System of CEEF

1997-07-01
972516
It is necessary to develop a small positive pressure control system for the closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) to protect against over-differential pressure loading. In the present study, a numerical method was developed to calculate the quantity of state of the closed module, which is fitted with rubber buffers, for the small positive pressure control system. Experiments to examine the pressure change of the closed module were carried out at CEEF. Comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that the present dynamic simulation is suited to estimating the quantity of state of the closed module.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Ammonia and Ammonium Nitrate Production System in a Closed Ecological Experiment Facility

1997-07-01
972518
In CEEF(Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) which is the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility, the ammonia and ammonium nitrate production system is a nitrogen fixation system as a part of nitrogen circulation system. Nitrogen and water which are input materials to the system are processed to produce ammonia water and ammonium nitrate solution as raw materials of fertilizer for plant cultivation. The design basis of the system is to convert 125g/day of nitrogen to ammonia and ammonium nitrate based on the amount of one person's metabolism. Experiment of the system has been carried out and we have studied characteristics of the system.
Technical Paper

The Initial Tests for Performance Evaluation of Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

1997-07-01
972517
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) have been under construction in northern Japan since 1994. These facilities contain the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF), as well as other facilities, in all of which, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research and development can be conducted. The CPEF includes two Plant Cultivation Modules (PCMs), which contain a PCM consists of three 30m2 closed cultivation rooms illuminated solely by lamps and a 165.1m3 preparation room, and a PCM consists of a 60m2 closed cultivation room illuminated by natural light and supplemental lamps and a 88.8m3 preparation room, and a Material Circulation System (MCS). Measured rate of air exchange between a 30m2 cultivation room and the preparation room was 0.48% hour-1, and that for a 60m2 cultivation room was about 0.11% hour-1. Air leak rate of the PCM as a whole was less than 0.01% hour-1 under isothermal and equal pressure condition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Nitrogen Fixation System in a Closed Ecological System

1994-06-01
941409
Nitrogen Fixation Systems(NFS) suitable for plant cultivation in a closed environment have been studied through experimental verification. The system is composed of physico-chemical processes only. Nitrogen gas and water are fed into the system as raw materials,and ammonia and ammonium nitrate solution are produced as final products, which are utilized as main fertilizers in plant cultivation. Each elemental chemical process in NFS is selected with regard to unique design criteria concerning safety, energy effectiveness, compactness and reliability. An experimental apparatus for important unit processes has been made for the purpose of verifying process data. A detail design for nitrogen fixation facilities, planned for construction as the first Japanese CELSS laboratory, was carried out.
Technical Paper

Water Recycling System for CELSS Environment in Space

1990-07-01
901208
System configurations of water recycling for space use have been continued through theoretical and experimental studies. The water recycling system plays a central role in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) which offers necessary environment and life styles in closed environment such as space stations, lunar bases, etc.. Membrane technology is a possible candidate for purifying waste water produced by crew use facility, plant cultivation facility, etc. In considerations of the system compactness realizing energy saving, membrane distillation has been revealed to be a suitable purification process. Ground experiments has been performed using membrane filtration processes and membrane distillation process. Thermopervaporation technology with hydrophobic membrane is utilized in the distillation process. The energy saving is achieved by thermal return of condensation energy.
Technical Paper

Japanese Research Activities of Life Support System

1990-07-01
901205
Many research activities relating the environment control and life support systems to be used in space have been conducted and continued in Japan since 1982 in order to obtain his own manned flight technologies for future Japanese missions. Research and development activities are able to be divided in two phases according mission scheduling such as JEM development to be used in International Space Station now going on and the future Japanese space infrastructures, for examples, Japanese Space Station and Lunar Base. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function.
Technical Paper

Concept of Waste Transferring Mechanisms

1992-07-01
921239
Recycling human and animal excreta is an important part of the proposed Closed Ecology Experiment Facility (CEEF) in Japan. This paper introduces a conceptual design for the waste collection and transfer system. Mineral-rich wastes such as urine and wool grease must be separated from other wastes to recover the minerals. Solids and liquids also require separate handling methods. Our design uses inclined conveyer belts to separate feces and urine. A fluorocarbon polymer coating prevents wastes from sticking to the belt. In-line freezers are used to solidify liquid wastes and retard premature decomposition. A summary of available data on animal excreta is included, but there is a distinct shortage of useful information. This data is insignificant for usual biology or animal husbandry, but is essential for designing the self-contained environment.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Solid Amine CO2 Adsorbing Characteristics

1992-07-01
921334
As a CO2 removing and recovering technology, the solid amine utilized as a vacuum desorbing type was developed. The evaluation experiments to measure fundamental characteristics of this material was conducted using the dry air and as the results, the high adsorbing rate, 10 wt% for short period and 7 wt% for long period was obtained and also 7 wt% of adsorbing rate can be expected for the operation of desorption temperature of 80 °C. High accuracy thermobalance device so called thermogravimetric analyzer was utilized to measure adsorption and desorption values of CO2.
X