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Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Behaviors in Split-Injection D.I. Diesel Sprays in a 2-D Model Combustion Chamber

Some experimental investigations have shown that the trade-off curve of NOx vs. particulate of a D.I. diesel engine with split-injection strategies can be shifted closer to the origin than those with a single-pulse injection, thus reducing both particulate and NOx emissions significantly. It is clear that the injection mass ratios and the dwell(s) between injection pulses have significant effects on the combustion and emissions formation processes in the D.I. diesel engine. However, how and why these parameters significantly affect the engine performances remains unexplained. The effects of both injection mass ratios and dwell between injections on vapor/liquid distributions in the split-injection diesel sprays impinging on a flat wall have been examined in our previous work.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heterogeneous Concentration Distribution of a Fuel-Air Mixture

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the flame propagation characteristics in the presence of a heterogeneous concentration distribution of a fuel-air mixture in order to provide fundamental knowledge of the effects of gaseous mixture concentration heterogeneity on the combustion process. Different propane-air mixture distributions were produced by the reciprocating movements of a pair of perforated plates in a constant volume combustion chamber. The mean equivalence ratio of the fuel-air mixture was varied from 0.7 on the lean side to 1.6 on the rich side, the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber was also varied at levels of 0.185 m/s, 0.130 m/s, 0.100 m/s, and 0.0 m/s. By an independent control of the mixture distribution and the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, the flame structure and flame propagation speed at various heterogeneous levels of the mixture distribution were investigated in detail.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mixture Stratification Patter non Combustion Characteristics in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

A pancake-type constant-volume combustion chamber was used to investigate the combustion and NOx emission characteristics of propane-air and hydrogen-air mixtures under various charge stratification patterns, which were obtained by variations of the initial charge and injected mixture concentrations and the ignition spark timing. A planar laser-induced fluorescence from nitrogen dioxide as gas fuel tracer was applied to measure the mixture distribution in the test chamber. The second harmonic output of pulsed Nd; YAG laser was used as a light source for fluorescence excitation. The fluorescence images were corrected by a gated image-intensified CCD camera. The quantitative analysis of fuel concentration was made possible by the application of linearity between fluorescence intensity and NO2 concentration at low trace level.
Technical Paper

PLIF Measurements of the Cyclic Variation of Mixture Concentration in a SI Engine

Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed to perform the quantitative measurements of the cyclic variation of mixture concentration in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (SI) engine. Nitrogen dioxide was used as the fluorescence tracer to simulate the fuel vapor. A Nd:YAG laser operated at its second harmonic wavelength was employed as the light source. The original engine was modified to introduce laser sheet light into the combustion chamber and the induced fluorescence was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated image intensifier. The measurements were done at the engine crank angles of 180° ∼ 300° ATDC with the engine speeds of 200 ∼ 400 rpm and the injection timings of -70 °, 50° and 100° ATDC. A theoretical analysis was made to describe the cyclically varying characteristics of the mixture concentration.
Technical Paper

Experiments and Modeling on Spray Distributions in the Combustion Chamber of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Distributions of non-evaporating diesel sprays impinging on a simulated combustion chamber wall were observed from various directions while changing some of the experimental parameters, such as nozzle projection and top-clearance. High-speed photography was used in this study to examine the effects of these parameters on the spray distributions. Moreover, the spray distributions were predicted by using a spray model based on a multi-package model. The calculated distributions were displayed three-dimensionally using a volume rendering application developed by the authors. The predicted spray distributions were compared with the experimental results observed from various directions in order to evaluate the spray model.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Spray Distributions in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Experiments and modeling of a spray impinged onto a cavity wall of a simulated piston were performed under simulated diesel engine conditions (pressure and density) at an ambient temperature. The diesel fuel was delivered from a Bosch-type injection pump to a single-hole nozzle, the hole being drilled in the same direction as the original five-hole nozzle. The fuel was injected into a high-pressure bomb in which an engine combustion chamber, composed of a piston, a cylinder head and a cylinder liner, was installed. Distributions of the spray impinged on the simulated combustion chamber were observed from various directions while changing some of the experimental parameters, such as combustion chamber shape, nozzle projection and top-clearance. High-speed photography was used in the constant volume bomb to examine the effect of these parameters on the spray distributions.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Visualization for Calculated Distributions of Diesel Spray and Flame in the Combustion Chamber of a D.I. Diesel Engine

Three-Dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate a calculated result of diesel combustion simulation into an realistically spray and flame image. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three-dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixture Heterogeneity on Flame Propagation in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

Although mixture formation is considered important in actual spark ignition engines, A full understanding of the combustion characteristics of a heterogeneous mixture has not yet been achieved. In this study, in order to clarify the effects of a heterogeneous concentration distribution of the fuel-air mixture on the flame propagation process, different degrees of heterogeneously distributed mixtures were created by the motion of a pair of perforated plates in a constant volume combustion chamber. The laser Rayleigh scattering method was applied for quantitative visualizations of these mixture distributions. To control the distribution of the mixture concentration and the turbulence intensity independently, the flow in the chamber and its turbulence intensity were also measured by a laser sheet method and the LDV technique.
Technical Paper

Total In-Cylinder Sampling Experiment on Emission Formation Processes in a D.I. Diesel Engine

An experimental study on emission formation processes, such as these of nitric oxide, particulate and total hydrocarbon in a small direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was carried out by using a newly developed total in-cylinder sampling technique. The sampling method consisted of rapidly opening a blowdown valve attached to the bottom of the piston bowl, and quickly transferring most of the in-cylinder contents into a large sampling chamber below the piston. No modification of the intake and exhaust ports in a cylinder head was required for the installation of the blowdown apparatus. The sampling experiment gave a history of spatially-averaged emission concentrations in the cylinder. The effects of several engine variables, such as the length-to-diameter ratio of the nozzle hole, the ratio of the piston bowl diameter to the cylinder bore and the intake swirl ratio, on the emission formation processes were investigated.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Fuel-Air Mixing Processes in a Small D.I. Diesel Engine Using the Liquid injection Technique

Simplified visualization of the fuel spray developing process in a small D.I. diesel engine was made by the liquid injection technique. In this technique, a liquid fuel was injected into another liquid to simulate injection into a high pressure gaseous atmosphere. For obtaining spray characteristics in the liquid similar to a diesel spray in a high-pressure gaseous atmosphere, the similarity principles based on the Reynolds number of the fuel flow at a nozzle hole and empirical equations of the spray penetration including the breakup length were introduced in this study. Especially, the injector was newly designed for the liquid injection technique based on these similarity principles. The behavior of the spray in a swirling flow was investigated. The spray with different breakup length shows different behavior in the same swirling flow.
Technical Paper

Simplified Three-Dimensional Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a D.I. Diesel Engine

This paper describes a simplified three-dimensional modeling of the mixture formation and combustion processes in a direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The fuel-air mixing and combustion processes in the D.I. diesel engine can be characterized by the combined effects of some processes, such as spray trajectory, fuel vaporization, gas motion, combustion, and dispersion of gaseous components and enthalpy. Each process was computed by a simple sub-model based on the experimental results and empirical equations. The dispersion process was, however, computed by solving the conservation equations of the gaseous components and enthalpy by the finite difference technique. The sub-models were combined for predicting the three-dimensional distributions of the gaseous components and the temperature in the combustion chamber, and finally the cylinder pressure, heat release rate, engine performance and pollutant emissions (NO and soot).
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Trajectory and Dispersion in a D.I. Diesel Combustion Chamber

Experiments and modeling of the fuel spray trajectory and dispersion influenced by both a swirling gas flow and wall impingement were performed under simulated direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine conditions at a high pressure and high temperature. A spray was injected into the steady swirling gas flow and impinged on the simulated piston cavity wall in a constant-volume bomb. High-speed Schlieren photographs provided the informative data on the behavior of the spray vaporizing in such diesel-like circumstances. A simplified computational model was developed to describe the spray trajectory and the fuel vapor dispersion in the D.I. diesel combustion chamber. The model includes the effects of the breakup on the trajectory and the vaporization of the spray, and the effects of the swirling gas flow and the wall impingement on the dispersion of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Approach to Low NOx and Smoke Emission Engines by Using Phenomenological Simulation

A phenomenological spray-combustion model of a D.I. Diesel engine was applied to study the engine parameters with potential for reducing NOx and smoke emissions. The spray-combustion model, first developed at the University of Hiroshima in 1976, has been sophisticated by incorporating new knowledge of diesel combustion. The model was verified using data from an experimental, single cylinder, D.I. diesel engine with a bore of 135mm and a stroke of 130mm. After the verification process, calculations were made under a wide range of the engine parameters, such as intake air temperature, intake air pressure, intake swirl ratio, nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure, air entrainment rate into the spray, and injection rate profile. These calculations estimated the effects of the engine parameters on NOx, smoke and specific fuel consumption. As a result of the calculations, an approach for the low NOx and smoke emission engine was found.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Measurements of the Fuel Vapor Concentration in the Combustion Chamber of a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

An experimental study was made of the two-dimensional distributions of the fuel vapor concentration simulated by Freon-12 in the combustion chamber of a SI engine. Laser Rayleigh scattering was applied for this remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-microchannel plate image intensifier. The results showed that the fuel vapor concentration was highly heterogeneous during the intake stroke and the inhomogeneity decreased in the compression stroke. But, even at the end of the compression stroke, a number of small lumps of inhomogeneous mixture still existed randomly in the engine combustion chamber, which is assumed to cause the heterogeneity of the mixture strength field at the spark discharge.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Flame Propagation of Spray Compound Mixture

The ignition and flame propagation processes of a propane-air mixture compounded with a kerosene spray were investigated in order to allow a better understanding of the multi-phase combustion process of the spray compound mixture in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) engine. The ignition probability and the flame propagation velocity, as functions of the overall equivalence ratio, fraction of propane in the fuel, ignition energy and the Sauter mean diameter of the spray, were measured under atmospheric conditions. The development of the flame kernel and the propagating flame were observed by a high-speed video camera combined with a schlieren system. Adding small amounts of the kerosene spray to the lean propane-air mixture improved the ignition probability. However, the ignition probability depended strongly on the Sauter mean diameter and the ignition energy. Replacing the propane with the kerosene spray in a rich propane-air mixture increased the flame propagation velocity.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Imaging of the Fuel Concentration in a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
Technical Paper

A Practical Calculation Method for Injection Pressure and Spray Penetration in Diesel Engines

Spray penetration for Diesel injectors, where injection pressure varies with time during the injection period, was calculated. In order to carry out this calculation, the discharge coefficients of the needle-seat opening passage and discharge hole in orifice-type Diesel nozzles were investigated separately. Simple empirical correlations were obtained between these coefficients and needle lift. Then, by introducing these correlations, the injection pressure, which is defined as the pressure in the sac chamber just upstream of the discharge hole, was either derived from measured fuel supply line pressure, or predicted by means of an injection system simulation. Finally, based on the transient injection pressure, spray tip penetration was calculated by taking the overall line which covers the trajectories of all fuel elements ejected during the injection period.
Technical Paper

A Visual Study of D.I. Diesel Combustion from the Under and Lateral Sides of an Engine

A high-speed photographic study is presented illustrating the influence of engine variables such as an introduced air swirl, the number of nozzle holes and the piston cavity diameter, on the combustion process in a small direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The engine was modified for optical access from the under and lateral sides of the combustion chamber. This modification enabled a three-dimensional analysis of the flame motion in the engine. The swirling velocity of a flame in a combustion chamber was highest in the piston cavity, and outside the piston cavity it became lower at the piston top and at the cylinder head in that order. The swirl ratio of the flame inside the cavity radius attenuated gradually with piston descent and approached the swirl ratio outside the cavity radius, which remained approximately constant during the expansion stroke. Engine performance was improved by retarding the attenuation of the swirl motion inside the cavity radius.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion Processes in the Prechamber and Main Chamber of an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine by High-Speed Photography

The combustion processes in the prechamber and the main chamber of a small indirect injection (I.D.I.) diesel engine were observed simultaneously by high-speed photography. These observations made it possible to characterize the behavior of flames in both chambers, that is, ignition of fuel, developing and rotating flames in the prechamber, and a flame jet spouting into the main chamber. The effect of engine variables, such as fuel injection timing, cross-sectional area of a throat, fuel injector location, and a recess in a piston top, on the combustion process as well as the engine performance were considered. A flame jet spouting into the main chamber separated into two directions and induced two vortexes. Brown sooty flames appeared along the prechamber wall and inside the flame jet which struck on the piston top. The higher-velocity flame jet and the two Intense vortexes induced by the flame jet realized superior fuel consumption and lower smoke emission.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Ambient Gas Density on Fuel - Ambient Gas Mixing and Combustion Characteristics of D.I. Diesel Spray

The fuel-ambient gas interaction process of the free diesel spray injected from the micro-hole nozzle (0.08 mm) into the quiescent and engine-like ambient gas condition was investigated by means of the laser-induced fluorescence - particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) technique in non-evaporating condition. Direct photography with high speed video camera and two color pyrometry were applied to analyze the evaporation spray and flame characteristics. Three injection pressures from 100, 200 to 300 MPa and two ambient gas densities of 11 and 15 kg/m₃ were selected as testing conditions. The entrained mass flow rate of the ambient gas through the whole spray boundary, the ratio of the total ambient gas entrainment rate to the fuel injection rate, etc., were calculated by using the ambient gas velocity data obtained by the LIF-PIV technique and used to correlate the combustion behavior.