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Technical Paper

Effects of Nozzle Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Flame Lift-Off and Soot Formation in D.I. Diesel Combustion

Previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter and elevated injection pressure are effective for preparing a uniform fuel-air mixture in a direct injection (D.I.) Diesel engine. A micro-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.08 mm and an ultra-high injection pressure of 300 MPa have been employed to investigate the mixture formation process under various conditions. The aim of the current work is to clarify the effect of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on flame lift-off and soot formation processes. The free sprays from the micro-hole and conventional nozzles were investigated at a high-temperature, high-pressure constant volume vessel. A high-speed video camera system was employed to record the non-vaporizing sprays and combustion. The direct photography of OH chemiluminescence was used to provide information about the high temperature combustion process and to measure the flame lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Ambient Gas Density on Fuel - Ambient Gas Mixing and Combustion Characteristics of D.I. Diesel Spray

The fuel-ambient gas interaction process of the free diesel spray injected from the micro-hole nozzle (0.08 mm) into the quiescent and engine-like ambient gas condition was investigated by means of the laser-induced fluorescence - particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) technique in non-evaporating condition. Direct photography with high speed video camera and two color pyrometry were applied to analyze the evaporation spray and flame characteristics. Three injection pressures from 100, 200 to 300 MPa and two ambient gas densities of 11 and 15 kg/m₃ were selected as testing conditions. The entrained mass flow rate of the ambient gas through the whole spray boundary, the ratio of the total ambient gas entrainment rate to the fuel injection rate, etc., were calculated by using the ambient gas velocity data obtained by the LIF-PIV technique and used to correlate the combustion behavior.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on Mixture Formation and Ignition Processes of Spray Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

The purpose of this study is to investigate the spray characteristics and ignition stability of gasoline sprays injected from a hole-type nozzle. Using a single-hole VCO (Valve-Covered-Orifice) nozzle, the spray characteristics were studied with LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique, and then flame propagation and ignition stability were investigated inside a high temperature high pressure constant volume vessel using a high speed video camera. The spatial ignition stability of the spray at different locations was tested by adjusting the position of the electrodes. By adjusting the ignition timings, the stable ignition windows for 3 determined locations where the ignition stability was high at a fixed ignition timing were studied. The flame propagation process was examined using high speed shadowgraph method. Experimental results show that when the ignition points are located on the spray axis, the ignition probability is low.
Journal Article

Effect of Injection Pressure on Ignition, Flame Development and Soot Formation Processes of Biodiesel Fuel Spray

The effect of injection pressure ranging from 100 to 300MPa on the ignition, flame development and soot formation characteristics of biodiesel fuel spray using a common rail injection system for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a constant volume vessel under conditions similar to the real engine condition using a single hole nozzle. Biodiesel fuels from two sources namely; palm oil (BDFp) and cooked oil (BDFc) with the commercial JIS#2diesel fuel were utilized in this research. The OH chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the ignition and the lift-off length of the combusting flame. The natural luminosity technique was applied to study the flame development and the two color pyrometry was applied for the soot formation processes. Ignition delay decreased as the injection pressure progressed from 100 to 300MPa. This was as a result of the enhanced mixing achieved at higher injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Spray Flame under Flat Wall Impinging Condition --LAS, OH* Chemiluminescence and Two Color Pyrometry Results

The effect of spray/wall interaction on diesel spray flame characteristics was investigated by applying LAS (Laser Absorption-Scattering) technique, OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry in a constant volume vessel. To insure the precision of this investigation, following necessary verification experiments were carried out: (1) OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were synchronously employed to analyze the influence of soot incandescence on OH* chemiluminescence signal intensity; and (2) frontal view and side view OH* images of a linearly arranged three holes injector were concentrated on to investigate the effect of soot on optical intensity attenuation under line-of-sight image recording condition. And then the effect of impinging distance (30,40,50,60 mm and free) on diesel spray and combustion behaviors were studied. The results reveal that the impinging distance plays a significant role in mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Mixture Formation and In-cylinder Combustion Processes in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

The group-hole (GH) nozzle concept that uses two closely spaced micro-orifices to substitute the conventional single orifice has the potential to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation, consequently attenuate the soot emission formed in direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engines. Studies of quantitative mixture properties of the transient fuel spray injected by the group-hole nozzles were conducted in a constant volume chamber via the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique, in comparison with conventional single-hole nozzles. Specific areas investigated involved: the non-evaporating and the evaporating ambient conditions, the free spray and the spray impinging on a flat wall conditions. The particular emphasis was on the effect of one of key parameters, the interval between orifices, of the group-hole (SH) nozzle structure.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes of Multi-Hole Nozzle with Micro Orifices for D.I. Diesel Engines

In order to investigate effects of the multi-hole nozzle with micro orifices on mixture formation processes in Direct-Injection Diesel engines, mixture characteristics were examined via an ultraviolet-visible laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique under various injectors. The injection quantity per orifice per cycle was reduced by nozzle hole sizes. The LAS technique can provide the quantitative and simultaneous measurements of liquid and vapor phases concentration distributions inside of the fuel spray. Mass of ambient gas entrained into the spray, liquid/ vapor mass and mean equivalence ratio of total fuel were obtained based on Lambert Beer's law. As a result, the leaner and more homogeneous fuel-gas mixture can be achieved by reducing the nozzle hole diameter, in the meanwhile more ambient gas were entrained into the spray. Moreover, relationships between mixture formation and D.I.
Journal Article

Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Wall-Impinging Sprays Injected by Group-Hole Nozzles for Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

The concept of two closely spaced micro-orifices (group hole nozzle) has been studied as a promising technology for the reduction of soot emission from direct injection (DI) diesel engines by improving the fuel atomization and evaporation. One of the main issues on group hole nozzle is the arrangement of orifices with various distances and angles. In this study, the ignition and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel sprays from group-hole nozzles were investigated with various angles between two micro-orifices (included angles). A laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique for non-axisymmetric sprays, developed based on a LAS technique for axisymmetric spray, was applied to investigate the liquid/vapor mass distribution of wall-impinging sprays. The direct flame images and OH radical images inside a high pressure constant volume vessel were captured to analyze the effect of included angle on spray ignition and combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effects of Micro-Hole and Ultra-High Injection Pressure on Mixture Properties of D.I. Diesel Spray

Experimental study has been carried out on the effects of the micro-hole nozzle injector and ultra-high injection pressure on the mixture properties of D.I. Diesel engine. A manually operated piston screw pump, High Pressure Generator, was used to obtain ultra-high injection pressures. Three kinds of injection pressures, 100MPa, 200MPa, and 300MPa, were applied to a specially designed injector. Four kinds of nozzle hole diameters, 0.16mm, 0.14mm, 0.10mm, and 0.08mm, were adopted in this study. The laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was used to analyze the equivalence ratio distributions, Sauter mean diameter, spray tip penetration length, and other spray characteristics. The analyses of the experimental results show that the micro-hole nozzle and ultra-high injection pressure are effective to increase the turbulent mixing rate and to form the uniform and lean fuel-air mixture.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heterogeneous Concentration Distribution of a Fuel-Air Mixture

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the flame propagation characteristics in the presence of a heterogeneous concentration distribution of a fuel-air mixture in order to provide fundamental knowledge of the effects of gaseous mixture concentration heterogeneity on the combustion process. Different propane-air mixture distributions were produced by the reciprocating movements of a pair of perforated plates in a constant volume combustion chamber. The mean equivalence ratio of the fuel-air mixture was varied from 0.7 on the lean side to 1.6 on the rich side, the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber was also varied at levels of 0.185 m/s, 0.130 m/s, 0.100 m/s, and 0.0 m/s. By an independent control of the mixture distribution and the turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, the flame structure and flame propagation speed at various heterogeneous levels of the mixture distribution were investigated in detail.
Technical Paper

Breakup Process of an Initial Spray Injected by a D.I. Gasoline Injector-Simultaneous Measurement of Droplet Size and Velocity by Laser Sheet Image Processing and Particle Tracking Technique

The breakup and atomization processes of the pre-swirl spray, which is produced before the hollow-cone spray from a high-pressure swirl-type D.I. gasoline injector, were investigated under different ambient pressure conditions. The injector has a press-fitted swirl tip, in which six tangential slots giving the injecting fuel an angular momentum are perforated at an equal space interval. A microscopic imaging technique was applied to get the spatially high-resolution LIF tomograms of the pre-swirl spray. The sprays were illuminated by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet and imaged using a high resolution CCD camera, fixed with a micro lens and coupled with an optical low-pass filter. The droplet size and the individual droplet's velocity were obtained by applying the image processing and the particle tracking techniques, respectively.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Droplets and Ambient Air Interaction in a D.I. Gasoline Spray Using LIF-PIV Technique

Measurements of the droplet and ambient air velocities in and around a D.I. gasoline spray were made by combining the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. Before the fuel spray was injected into a constant volume vessel, rhodamine B-water solution was injected into the ambient air by a swirl-type injector for dispersing the fine fluorescent liquid particles as tracers for the ambient air motion. The fuel spray was injected into the fluorescent tracer clouds by a D.I. gasoline injector and was illuminated by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet (wave length: 532 nm). The light scattered by the droplets in the fuel spray was the same as the Nd:YAG laser wavelength, whereas the light emitted by the fluorescent tracer clouds was at a longer wavelength.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Flow Field Measurement of D.I. Gasoline Spray and Entrained Ambient Air by LIF-PIV Technique

The spray and the entrained ambient air motions produced by a swirl-type D.I. gasoline injector were simultaneously measured by combining the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For the simultaneous measurement of the spray and the ambient air velocities, the succeeding two image pairs of the fuel spray and the ambient air tracer particles were captured by using a Nd:YAG laser light sheet (wave length: 532 nm) and two high-resolution CCD cameras. The light emitted from the fluorescent tracer clouds was discriminated from the light scattered from the droplets in the fuel spray by an optical low-pass filter (>560 nm), and the Mie scattering signals from the spray particles were screened by a band-pass filter ranging from 520 to 545 nm. The spray and the tracer particle images were analyzed by the double frame cross-correlation PIV technique to obtain the droplets and ambient air velocity distributions.
Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Behaviors in Split-Injection D.I. Diesel Sprays in a 2-D Model Combustion Chamber

Some experimental investigations have shown that the trade-off curve of NOx vs. particulate of a D.I. diesel engine with split-injection strategies can be shifted closer to the origin than those with a single-pulse injection, thus reducing both particulate and NOx emissions significantly. It is clear that the injection mass ratios and the dwell(s) between injection pulses have significant effects on the combustion and emissions formation processes in the D.I. diesel engine. However, how and why these parameters significantly affect the engine performances remains unexplained. The effects of both injection mass ratios and dwell between injections on vapor/liquid distributions in the split-injection diesel sprays impinging on a flat wall have been examined in our previous work.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ambient Air Entrainment into Split Injection D.I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV Technique

Effects of split injection, with a relatively short time interval between the two sprays, on the spray development process, and the air entrainment into the spray, were investigated by using laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) techniques. The velocities of the spray and the ambient air were measured. The cumulative mass of the ambient air entrained into the spray was calculated by using the entrainment velocity normal to the spray boundary. The vortex structure of the spray, formed around the leading edge of the spray, showed a true rotating flow motion at low ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, whereas at 0.4 MPa, it was not a true rotating flow, but a phenomenon of the small droplets separating from the leading edge of the spray and falling behind, due to air resistance. The development processes of the 2nd spray were considerably different from that of the 1st spray because the 2nd spray was injected into the flow fields formed by the 1st spray.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Spray with Temporally-Splitting High-Pressure Injection

The effect of temporally-splitting high pressure injection on Diesel spray combustion and soot formation processes was studied by using the high-speed video camera. The spray was injected by the single-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.11mm into the high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The free spray and the spray impingement on the two dimensional (2D) piston cavity wall were examined. Injection pressures of 100 and 160 MPa for the single injection and 160 MPa for the split injection were selected. The flame structure and soot formation process were examined by using the two-color pyrometry. The soot generated in the flame under the split injection under 160 MPa becomes higher than that of the single injection under 160 MPa.
Technical Paper

Spray, Mixture and Combustion Characteristics of Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Injected by Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

The injection amount per stage in a multiple injection strategy is smaller than a conventional single-stage injection. In this paper, the effect of the injection amount (0.27mg, 0.89mg, 2.97mg) under 100MPa injection pressure and the effect of injection pressure (100MPa, 150MPa, 170MPa) under different injection amounts (0.27mg, 2.97mg) on the spray and mixture formation characteristics were studied by analyzing the vapor/liquid phase concentration distributions obtained under various conditions via using the tracer LAS technique. The spray was injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel by using a single-hole nozzle with a diameter 0.133mm. The higher the injection pressure with a smaller injection amount is, the shorter the spray tip penetration and leaner air-fuel mixture occur. The combustion processes had been examined by a high-speed video camera with the two-color pyrometry method.
Technical Paper

Split Injection Spray Development, Mixture Formation, and Combustion Processes in a Diesel Engine Piston Cavity: Rig Test and Real Engine Results

The objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategies with split injection on soot emission characteristics. The split injection conditions included three injection intervals (1.1 ms, 1.3 ms, and 1.5 ms) and three injection quantity fraction ratios (Q1/Q2 = 10.0/14.6 mm3/st, 15.2/9.4 mm3/st, and 20.0/4.6 mm3/st). The results in real engine tests showed that shorter injection intervals, and the 1st injection quantity contributes to reduced soot emissions. A rig test with high-pressure and high-temperature constant-volume vessel (CVV) and a two-dimensional (2D) model piston cavity were used to determine correlations between injection conditions and soot emissions. During the rig test, fuel was injected into the CVV by a single-hole nozzle under split injection strategies. The injection strategies include the same injection intervals and quantity fraction ratios as in the real engine test.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation in Split-Injection Diesel Sprays via Laser Absorption-Scattering (LAS) Technique

Experimental results of a diesel engine have shown that using split-injection can reduce the NOx and particulate emissions. For understanding the mechanism of emissions reduction, mixture formation in split-injection diesel sprays was characterized in the present paper. A dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was developed by use of the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the incident light and dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as the test fuel. By applying this technique, imaging was made of DMN sprays injected into a high-temperature and high-pressure constant volume vessel by a single-hole nozzle incorporated in a common rail injection system for D.I. diesel engine. The line-of-sight optical thickness of both fuel vapor and droplets in the sprays was yielded from the sprays images.
Technical Paper

3-D PIV Analysis of Structural Behavior of D.I. Gasoline Spray

Three-dimensional behaviors of direct injection (D.I.) gasoline sprays were investigated using 2-D and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The fuel was injected with a swirl type injector for D.I. gasoline engines into a constant volume chamber in which ambient pressure was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 MPa at room temperature. The spray was illuminated by a laser light sheet generated by a double-pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wave length: 532 nm) and the succeeding two tomograms of the spray were taken by a high-resolution CCD camera. The 2-D and 3-D velocity distributions of the droplet cloud in the spray were calculated from these tomograms by using the PIV technique. The effects of the swirl groove flows in the injector and the ambient pressure on the structural behavior of the droplet cloud in the spray were also examined.