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Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of the Fuel Mixing Process in a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

The spray formation and mixing processes in a direct-injection gasoline engine are examined by using a sophisticated air flow calculation model and an original spray model. The spray model for a spiral injector can evaluate the droplet size and spatial distribution under a wide range of parameters such as the initial cone angle, back pressure and injection pressure. This model also includes the droplet breakup process due to wall impingement. The arbitrary constants used in the spray model are derived theoretically without using any experimental data. Fuel vapor distributions just before ignition and combustion processes are analyzed for both homogeneous and stratified charge conditions.
Technical Paper

Synthesized Spheroid Particle(SSP) Method for Calculating Spray Phenomena in Direct-Injection SI Engines

A synthesized spheroid particle (SSP) method is proposed on the basis of the first principles of fluid dynamics for calculating consistently the atomization behaviors of spray droplets and liquid sheets injected, the mixing of air and fuel, and the wall-impingement of droplet. The method includes a formulation for evaluating the collision of droplets accurately. The atomization process of the conical sheet of liquid fuel injected from a simplex nozzle is simulated by the SSP method for a wide range of back pressures and initial cone angles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurements and Computations for Clarifying Nearly Complete Air-Insulation Obtained by the Concept of Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets

In our previous papers, a new concept of a compressive combustion engine (Fugine) was proposed based on the collision of pulsed supermulti-jets, which can enclose the burned gas around the chamber center leading to an air-insulation effect and also a lower exhaust gas temperature due to high single-point compression. In order to examine the compression level and air-insulation effect as basic data for application to automobiles, aircraft, and rockets, a prototype engine based on the concept, i.e., a piston-less prototype engine with collision of bi-octagonal pulsed multi-jets from fourteen nozzles, was developed. Some combustion results [Naitoh et al. SAE paper, 2016] were recently reported. However, there was only one measurement of wall temperature and pressure in the previous report. Thus, in this paper, more experimental data for pressures and temperatures on chamber walls and exhaust temperatures, are presented for the prototype engine.
Technical Paper

Fugine as Single-Point Compression Engine based on Supermulti-Jets Colliding with Pulse: Combustion Test of Second Prototype Engine with Strongly-Asymmetric Double-Piston System

We proposed a new compressive combustion principle for an inexpensive and relatively quiet engine reactor that has the potential to achieve incredible thermal efficiency. The high efficiency can be achieved with colliding supermulti-jets that create complete air insulation to encase burned gas around the chamber center. We developed a small prototype engine system for gasoline, which has a strongly-asymmetric double piston and the supermulti-jets colliding with pulse. In this report, we will show combustion experimental results at startup and at steady state operation. We obtained exhaust temperature over 100 degree Celsius and pressure data, which imply auto-ignition occurrence of gasoline.
Technical Paper

Physical Theory of the Single-Point Auto-Ignition Engine Based on Supermulti-Jets Colliding with Pulse: Leading to Thermal Efficiency over 60% at Various Engine Speeds and Loads of Automobiles

This paper proposes a new compressive combustion principle for an inexpensive, lightweight, and relatively quiet engine reactor that has the potential to achieve incredible thermal efficiency over 60% even for small engines having strokes shorter than 100mm, whereas eco-friendly gasoline engines for today's automobiles use less than 35% of the supplied energy for work on average. This level of efficiency can be achieved with colliding supermulti-jets that create air insulation to encase burned gas around the chamber center, thereby avoiding contact with the chamber walls, including the piston. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that higher compression results in less combustion noise because of the encasing effect. We will first show that numerical computations done for two jets colliding in line quantitatively agree with shock-tube experiment and theoretical value based on compressible fluid mechanics.
Technical Paper

Computations and Experiments for Clarifying Compression Level and Stability of Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets in a Piston-Less Single-Point Autoignition Engine

In recent years, a new type of engine (Fugine) based on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets was proposed by us, which indicates the potential for attaining very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. A prototype engine with eight nozzles for injecting octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets, which was developed with a low-cost gasoline injector and a double piston system, showed high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. Another type of prototype piston-less engine having fourteen bioctagonal nozzles was also developed and test results confirmed the occurrence of combustion, albeit it was unstable. In this work, time histories of pressure were measured in the combustion chamber of the piston-less prototype engine under a cold flow condition without combustion in order to examine the compression level obtained with the colliding supermulti-jets.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Three-Dimensional Computations of the Penetration Length and Mixing Process of Various Single High-Speed Gas Jets for Engines

For various densities of gas jets including very light hydrogen and relatively heavy ones, the penetration length and diffusion process of a single high-speed gas fuel jet injected into air are computed by performing a large eddy simulation (LES) with fewer arbitrary constants applied for the unsteady three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast, traditional ensemble models such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation have several arbitrary constants for fitting purposes. The cubic-interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) method is employed for discretizing the nonlinear terms. Computations of single-component nitrogen and hydrogen jets were done under initial conditions of a fuel tank pressure of gas fuel = 10 MPa and back pressure of air = 3.5 MPa, i.e., the pressure level inside the combustion chamber after piston compression in the engine.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of Pressure Wave Reflection on the Piston Surface for Single Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine with Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets Leading to Noiseless-High Compression and Nearly-Complete Air-Insulation

A new engine concept based on pulsed supermulti-jets colliding at a small area around the chamber center was proposed in our previous research. It was expected to provide noiseless high compression ratio and nearly-complete air-insulation on chamber walls, leading to high thermal efficiency. In the previous reports, three-dimensional computations for the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equation were conducted, which were qualitative because of using regular grid method. This time, we develop a new numerical code in order to quantitatively simulate the compression level caused by the jets colliding with pulse. It is achieved by applying a staggered grid method to improve conservatibity of physical quantities at very high compression in combustion phenomena. Computations at a simple condition were fairly agreed with a theoretical value. Computational results obtained for a complex geometry of an engine by the new code had less error than one with previous codes.