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Technical Paper

Automated Model Evaluation and Verification of Aircraft Components

2010-11-02
2010-01-1806
The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration.
Technical Paper

Integrated Aircraft Electrical Power System Modeling and Simulation Analysis

2010-11-02
2010-01-1804
Advancements in electrical, mechanical, and structural design onboard modern more electric aircraft have added significant stress to the electrical systems. An electrical system level analysis tool has been created in MATLAB/Simulink to facilitate rapid system analysis and optimization to meet the growing demands of modern aircraft. An integratated model of segment level models of an electrical system including a generator, electrical accumulator unit, electrical distribution unit and electromechanical actuators has been developed. Included in the model are mission level models of an engine and aircraft to provide relevant boundary conditions. It is anticipated that the tracking of the electrical distribution through numerical integration of these various subsystems will lead to more accurate predictions of the bus power quality. In this paper the tool is used to evaluate two architectures using two different load profiles.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Fuel Thermal Capacity and Prognostics Algorithm

2012-10-22
2012-01-2173
Advanced tactical aircraft and their propulsion systems produce an order of magnitude more heat than legacy designs and offer fewer viable heat rejection opportunities. The current approach uses aircraft fuel as a primary heat sink which is either cooled by ram air and returned to the aircraft, or rejected off the aircraft when burned by the engine. Traditionally, aircraft have been limited in mission capability by the design performance and the available fuel quantity; however, potential thermal limitations have presented a new mission challenge. Joker and bingo range notifications based on fuel quantity remaining are common on modern fighters to ensure the pilot has the foresight to complete a mission segment and return to base before running out of fuel. Now, pilots may need to consider the possibility of a similar thermal joker/bingo concept until alternative LO heat rejection methods are discovered that remove limitations.
Technical Paper

Model Accuracy of Variable Fidelity Vapor Cycle System Simulations

2014-09-16
2014-01-2140
As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems advance, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for cost effective subsystem optimization. The success of the model-based design process is contingent on accurate prediction of the system response prior to hardware fabrication, but the level of fidelity necessary to achieve this objective is often called into question. Identifying the key benefits and limitations of model fidelity along with the key parameters that drive model accuracy will help improve the model-based design process enabling low cost, optimized solutions for current and future programs. In this effort, the accuracy and capability of a vapor cycle system (VCS) model were considered from a model fidelity and parameter accuracy standpoint. A range of model fidelity was evaluated in terms of accuracy, capability, simulation speed, and development time.
Technical Paper

Enhancements to Software Tools and Progress in Model-Based Design of EOA on the INVENT Program

2014-09-16
2014-01-2118
The diverse and complex requirements of next-generation energy optimized aircraft (EOA) demand detailed transient and dynamic model-based design (MBD) to ensure the proper operation of numerous interconnected and interacting subsystems across multiple disciplines. In support of the U.S. Air Force's Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program, several MBD-derived software tools, including models of EOA technologies, have been developed. To validate these models and demonstrate the performance of EOA technologies, a series of Integrated Ground Demonstration (IGD) hardware tests are planned. Several of the numerous EOA software tools and MBD-based processes have been updated and adapted to support this activity.
Journal Article

Software Tools for Efficient Model-Based Design of Energy Optimized Aircraft

2012-10-22
2012-01-2176
The diverse and complex requirements of next-generation energy optimized aircraft (EOA) demand detailed transient and dynamic model-based design (MBD) to ensure the proper operation of numerous interconnected and interacting subsystems. In support of the U.S. Air Force's Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program, several software tools have been developed and are in use that aid in the efficient MBD of next-generation EOA. Among these are subsystem model libraries, automated subsystem model verification test scripts, a distributed co-simulation application, and tools for system configuration, EOA mission building, data logging, plotting, post-processing, and visualization, and energy flow analysis. Herein, each of these tools is described. A detailed discussion of each tool's functionality and its benefits with respect to the goal of achieving successful integrated system simulations in support of MBD of EOA is given.
Journal Article

A First Principles Based Approach for Dynamic Modeling of Turbomachinery

2016-09-20
2016-01-1995
As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems increases, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for reducing development cost and optimizing performance. To facilitate this, an appropriate modeling environment is required that allows developers to rapidly explore a wider design space than can cost effectively be considered through hardware construction and testing. This wide design space can then yield solutions that are far more energy efficient than previous generation designs. In addition, non-intuitive cross-coupled subsystem behavior can also be explored to ensure integrated system stability prior to hardware fabrication and testing. In recent years, optimization of control strategies between coupled subsystems has necessitated the understanding of the integrated system dynamics.
Technical Paper

Risk Assessment of Fuel Property Variability Using Quasi-Random Sampling/Design of Experiments Methodologies

2019-03-19
2019-01-1387
Increases in on-board heat generation in modern military aircraft have led to a reliance on thermal management techniques using fuel as a primary heat sink. However, recent studies have found that fuel properties, such as specific heat, can vary greatly between batches, affecting the amount of heat delivered to the fuel. With modern aircraft systems utilizing the majority of available heat sink capacity, an improved understanding of the effects of fuel property variability on overall system response is important. One way to determine whether property variability inside a thermal system causes failure is to perform uncertainty analyses on fuel thermophysical properties and compare results to a risk assessment metric. A sensitivity analysis can be performed on any properties that cause inherent system variability to determine which properties contribute the most significant impact.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Domain Component Based Modeling Toolset for Dynamic Integrated Power and Thermal System Modeling

2019-03-19
2019-01-1385
Design of modern aircraft relies heavily on modeling and simulation for reducing cost and improving performance. However, the complexity of aircraft architectures requires accurate modeling of dynamic components across many subsystems. Integrated power and thermal modeling necessitates dynamic simulations of liquid, air, and two-phase fluids within vapor cycle system components, air cycle machine and propulsion components, hydraulic components, and more while heat generation of many on-board electrical components must also be precisely calculated as well. Integration of these highly complex subsystems may result in simulations which are too computationally expensive for quickly modeling extensive variations of aircraft architecture, or will require simulations with reduced accuracy in order to provide computationally inexpensive models.
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