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Technical Paper

Measurements and Modeling of Residual Gas Fraction in SI Engines

The residual gas in SI engines is one of important factors on emission and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and there are deeply related with combustion stability, especially at Idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. A model for predicting the residual gas fraction has been formulated in this paper. The model accounts for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during valve overlap and it includes in-cylinder pressure prediction model during valve overlap. The model is derived from the one dimension flow process during overlap period and a simple ideal cycle model.
Technical Paper

Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model of DME for HCCI Combustion

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion engines could have a thermal efficiency as high as that of conventional compression-ignition engines and the production of low emissions of ultra-low oxides of NOx and PM. HCCI engines can operate on most alternative fuels, especially, dimethyl ether which has been tested as possible diesel fuel for its simultaneously reduced NOx and PM emissions. However, to adjust HCCI combustion to practical engines, the main problem about the HCCI engine must be solved; control of its ignition timing and burn rate over a range of engine speeds and loads. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been used to predict the combustion characteristics. But it is difficult to apply detailed chemical kinetic mechanism to simulate practical engines because of its high complexity coupled with multidimensional fluid dynamic models. Thus, reduced chemical kinetic modeling is desirable.
Technical Paper

Computational and Optical Investigation of Liquid Fuel Film on the Cylinder Wall of an SI Engine

The liquid fuel film on the cylinder liner is believed to be a major source of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions in SI engines, especially during cold start and warm-up period. Quantifying the liquid fuel film on the cylinder liner is essential to understand the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions formation in SI engines. In this work, the fuel film formation model was developed to investigate the distribution of wall fuel film on the cylinder wall of an SI engine. By integrating the continuity, momentum, and energy equations along the direction of fuel film thickness the simulation of the fuel film formation was carried out in the test rig. Spray impingement and fuel film models were incorporated into the computational fluid dynamics code, STAR-CD to calculate fuel film thickness and distribution of fuel film on the cylinder wall. With a laser-induced fluorescence method, the two-dimensional visualization of liquid fuel films was carried out to validate the simulation results.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Crevices on the Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

To understand the effects of crevices on the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, a series of engine experiments was carried out with different piston crevice volumes and with simulated head gasket crevices. The engine-out HC level was found to be modestly sensitive to the piston crevice size in both the warmed-up and the cold engines, but more sensitive to the crevice volume in the head gasket region. A substantial decrease in HC in the cold-to-warm-up engine transition was observed and is attributed mostly to the change in port oxidation.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Injection and Operating Strategies on Diesel Single Cylinder Engine under JP-8 and Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion

The alternative fuel jet propellant 8 (JP-8, NATO F-34) can be used as an auto-ignition source instead of diesel. Because it has a higher volatility than diesel, it provides a better air-fuel premixing condition than a conventional diesel engine, which can be attributed to a reduction in particulate matter (PM). In homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) or dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion or reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), nitrogen oxides (NOx) can also be reduced by supplying external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In this research, the diesel and JP-8 injection strategies under conventional condition and dual-fuel PCCI combustion with and without external EGR was conducted. Two tests of dual-fuel (JP-8 and propane) PCCI were conducted at a low engine speed and load (1,500 rpm/IMEP 0.55 MPa). The first test was performed by advancing the main injection timing from BTDC 5 to 35 CA to obtain the emissions characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Operating Strategy for the Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion with Propane and Diesel under a High EGR Rate Condition

In this work, the operating strategy for diesel injection methods and a way to control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate under dual-fuel PCCI combustion with an appropriate ratio of low-reactivity fuel (propane) to achieve high combustion stability and low emissions is introduced. The standards of combustion stability were carbon monoxide (CO) emissions below 5,000 ppm and a CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) below 5 %. Additionally, the NOx emissions was controlled to not exceed 50 ppm, which is the standard of conventional diesel combustion, and PM emissions was kept below 0.2 FSN, which is a tenth of the conventional diesel value without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The operating condition was a low speed and load condition (1,500 rpm/ near gIMEP of 0.55 MPa).
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Control Using the In-Cylinder Pressure Signal in a High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
Technical Paper

The Development of Real-time NOx Estimation Model and its Application

To meet the stringent emission regulations on diesel engines, engine-out emissions have been lowered by adapting new combustion concepts such as low-temperature combustion and after-treatment systems have also been used to reduce tailpipe emissions. To optimize the control of both in-cylinder combustion and the efficiency of an after treatment system to reduce NOx, the amount of real-time NOx emissions should be determined. Therefore, in previous studies, the authors developed a real-time NO estimation model based on the in-cylinder pressure and the data available from the ECU during engine operation. The model was evaluated by comparing its results with a CFD model, which agreed well. Then, the model was implemented on an embedded system which allows real-time applications, and was verified on a 2.2-liter diesel engine. The model showed good agreement with the experimental results at various steady-state conditions and simple transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction using a Close Post Injection Strategy with a Modified Nozzle and Piston Bowl Geometry for a Heavy EGR Rate

As EURO-6 regulations will be enforced in 2014, the reduction of NOx emission while maintaining low PM emission levels becomes an important topic in current diesel engine research. EGR is the most effective way to reduce the NOx emission because EGR has a dilution and thermal effect as a means to reduce the oxygen concentration and combustion temperature. Although EGR is useful in reducing the NOx emission, it suffers from a higher level of CO and THC emissions, which indicates a low combustion efficiency and poor fuel consumption. Therefore, in this research, a close post injection strategy, which is implemented using main injection and post injection, is introduced to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce PM emission under a high EGR rate. In addition, a modified hardware configuration using a double-row nozzle and a two-staged piston bowl geometry is adapted to improve the effect of the close post injection.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of the In-Cylinder EGR Stratification on NOx and Soot Emissions in Diesel Engines

Much research has been devoted to reducing NOx and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The low temperature combustion (LTC) concept has the potential to reduce these emissions at the same time, but it has limitations to its commercialization. In-cylinder EGR stratification is another combustion concept meant to reduce both types of emissions simultaneously using non-uniform in-cylinder EGR gas distribution. The EGR stratification concept uses a locally high EGR region of the in-cylinder so that the emissions can be reduced without increasing the overall EGR rate. In this study, the EGR stratification concept was improved with a CFD-based analysis. First, a two-step piston was developed to maximize the stratified EGR effect. Then, the feasibility of combustion and emission control by stratified EGR was evaluated under cases of artificially distributed EGR stratification and conventional diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study of Emissions Reduction through Dual-Fuel Combustion with Propane in a Compression Ignition Engine

Novel Diesel combustion concepts such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) promise lower NOx and PM emissions than those of conventional Diesel combustion. RCCI, which can be implemented using low-reactivity fuels such as gasoline or gases and high-reactivity fuels such as Diesel, has the potential to achieve extremely low emissions and improved thermal efficiency. However, to achieve RCCI combustion, a higher boost pressure than that of a conventional engine is required because a high EGR rate and a lean mixture are necessary to achieve a low combustion temperature. However, higher boost pressures can cause damage to intake systems. In this research, the addition of gaseous fuel to a CI engine is investigated to reduce engine emissions, mainly NOx and PM emissions, with the same IMEP level. Two different methods were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Pollutant Formation in Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines by Incorporating the G-Equation with a Flamelet Library

Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines are regarded as a promising technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and improvement of engine thermal efficiency. However, due to direct injection, the shortened fuel-air mixing duration leads to a spatial gradient of the equivalence ratio, and these locally rich regions cause the formation of particulate matter. In the current study, numerical investigations on pollutant formation in a DISI engine were performed using combined flamelet models for premixed and diffusion flames. The G-equation model for partially premixed combustion was improved by incorporating the laminar flamelet library. Gasoline fuel was represented as a ternary mixture of gasoline surrogate and its laminar flame speeds were obtained under a wide range of engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Efficiency and Emission Characteristics of Dual Fuel Combustion Using Gasoline Direct Injection and Ethanol Port Injection in an SI Engine

Ethanol, one of the most widely used biofuels, has the potential to increase the knock resistance of gasoline and decrease harmful emissions when blended with gasoline. However, due to the characteristics of ethanol, a trade-off relationship between knock tolerance and BSFC exists which is balanced by the blending ratio of gasoline and ethanol. Furthermore, in a spark-ignited engine, it is reported that the blending ratio that maximizes thermal efficiency varies based on the engine operating conditions. Therefore, an injection system that can deliver gasoline and ethanol separately is needed to fully exploit the benefit of ethanol. In this study, PFI injectors and a DI injector are used to deliver ethanol and gasoline, respectively. Using the dual fuel injection system, the compression ratio was increased from 9.5 to 13.3, and the knock mitigation characteristics at the full load condition were examined.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Engine Noise According to EGR Rate Change during Transient Operation

Diesel engine noise is classified into mechanical noise, flow dynamic noise and combustion noise. Among these, combustion noise level is higher than the others due to the high compression ratio of diesel combustion and auto ignition. The injected fuel is mixed with air in the ignition delay process, followed by simultaneous ignition of the premixed mixture. This process results in a rapid pressure rise, which is the main source of combustion noise. The amount of fuel burned during premixed combustion is mainly affected by the ignition delay. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate has an impact on ignition delay, and thus, it influences the combustion noise characteristics. Therefore, during the transient state, the combustion noise characteristics change as the EGR rate deviates from the target value. In this study, the effect of the EGR rate deviation during the transient state of the combustion noise is examined. A 1.6 liter diesel engine with a VGT was used for the experiment.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Soot Emission in Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines Using a Detailed Soot Model Framework

The soot emission in direct-injection spark-ignition engines under various operating conditions was numerically investigated in the present study. A detailed soot model was used to resolve the physical soot process that consists of polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbon (PAH) formation and soot particle dynamics. The primary propagating flame in partially-premixed field was described by G-equation model, and the concentrations of burned species as well as PAH behind of the flame front were determined from the laminar flamelet library that incorporates the PAH chemical mechanism. The particle dynamics in post-flame region include nucleation, surface growth, coagulation, and oxidation were modeled by method of moments. To improve the model predictability, a gasoline surrogate model was proposed to match the real fuel properties, and the input of droplet size distribution of fuel spray was obtained from Phase-Doppler Particle Analyzer.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effect of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emission Characteristics under Cold Start Using In-cylinder Visualization

Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition. A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied. Moreover, the factors that affect PM formation were analyzed via fuel injection visualization.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle System Model for the First Medium- and Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Standards in Korea

To properly respond to demands to reduce national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission targets based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agencies and academic and research institutions to establish the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) commercial vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as Phase 1 of the plan and will regulate trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 tons and buses with a carrying capacity of more than 16 persons. Most MHD commercial vehicles are custom-made and manufactured in diversified small-quantity batch production systems for commercial or public use, resulting in difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Study of LES Quality Criteria in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine

In recent years, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) is spotlighted as an engineering tool and severe research efforts are carried out on its applicability to Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, there is a general lack of definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICE. This paper focuses on the application of LES quality criteria to ICE and to their correlation, in order to draw a solid background on future LES quality assessments for ICE. In this paper, TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan is investigated and the analysis is conducted under motored condition. LES quality is mainly affected by grid size and type, sub-grid scale (SGS) model, numeric schemes. In this study, the same grid size and type are used in order to focus on the effect on LES quality of SGS models and blending factors of numeric scheme only.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Sub-Grid Model Effect on the Accuracy of In-Cylinder LES of the TCC Engine under Motored Conditions

The increasing interest in the application of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) to Internal Combustion Engines (hereafter ICEs) flows is motivated by its capability to capture spatial and temporal evolution of turbulent flow structures. Furthermore, LES is universally recognized as capable of simulating highly unsteady and random phenomena driving cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) and cycle-resolved events such as knock and misfire. Several quality criteria were proposed in the recent past to estimate LES uncertainty: however, definitive conclusions on LES quality criteria for ICEs are still far to be found. This paper describes the application of LES quality criteria to the TCC-III single-cylinder optical engine from University of Michigan and GM Global R&D; the analyses are carried out under motored condition.