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Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

2018-04-03
2018-01-0810
Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

NDT of Weld Joints Using Shearographic Interferometry and Dynamic Exciation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0996
Weld Joints are widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. The main issue in the weld joints is the quality inspection to detect the disconnection in the welded area. In this paper, Shearographic technique with dynamic excitation is introduced to test the weld joints. In the experiments, the coupons are of 4 very thin layers of metal sheets welded together. The goal is to find out if there are any disconnections between the layers. They are clamped and then excited by a PZT actuator from behind. A real time digital Shearographic system with a self-refreshed reference image technology has been developed to display the measuring result, i.e. shearogram. A big range of driving frequencies is scanned to find the proper frequency and amplitude that can help to identify the disconnections. The results show that when the driving frequency reaches the resonance frequency, there will be big amplitude and thus a fringe pattern becomes visible on the coupon surface.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Measurement Using a Multi-Sensor Digital Image Correlation System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1423
A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
Technical Paper

Research on Shear Test of New Style Automotive Structural Adhesive

2014-04-01
2014-01-0828
In this paper, Digital Image Correlation Method (DICM) is employed to measure the shear mechanical property of the new style automotive structural adhesive specimens and traditional spot welded specimens under quasi static uniaxial shear tensile test. This experiment adopts a non-contact measuring method to measure the strain of specimens. A CCD and a computer image processing system are used to capture and record the real-time surface images of the specimens before and after deformation. Digital correlation software is used to process the imagines before and after deformation to obtain the specimen's strain of the moment. And then both the force-displacement curve and the stress-strain curve during the tensile process could be obtained. The test and analysis results show that the new style structural adhesive specimens have a great advantage with the spot welded specimens. It provides experimental evidence for further improvement of this structural adhesive.
Technical Paper

The Research Progress of Dynamic Photo-Elastic Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0829
With the rapid development of computing technology, high-speed photography system and image processing recently, in order to meet growing dynamic mechanical engineering problems demand, a brief description of advances in recent research which solved some key problems of dynamic photo-elastic method will be given, including:(1) New digital dynamic photo-elastic instrument was developed. Multi-spark discharge light source was replaced by laser light source which was a high intensity light source continuous and real-time. Multiple cameras shooting system was replaced by high-speed photography system. The whole system device was controlled by software. The image optimization collection was realized and a strong guarantee was provided for digital image processing. (2)The static and dynamic photo-elastic materials were explored. The new formula and process of the dynamic photo-elastic model materials will be introduced. The silicon rubber mold was used without the release agent.
Technical Paper

Design Approach for Online Measuring the Distance of the Gap between the Contactors of Electric Relay Switch

2014-04-01
2014-01-0831
The assembling accuracy of two contactors during the relay switch production is an important factor affecting the quality of relay. An embedded machine vision quality Inspection system has been developed for electric relay production line inspection. The proposed system can provide online feedback on the quality of the relays by measuring the distance of the gap between the contacts of them. Two CMOS imaging sensors are operated for image acquisition and the parallel working mode is realized under dual-channel mode. A red light illumination system has been adopted to eliminate the imaging noise from the reflection of the surfaces of copper sheet. Before the test, the features areas in the image of same type relay is selected as template and saved in the computer. During the inspection procedure, a rotation invariance detection scheme based on circular projection matching algorithm has been used for fast recognizing and locating detected object with the help of these feature areas.
Technical Paper

The Digital Image Correlation Technique Applied to Hole Drilling Residual Stress Measurement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0825
The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive).
Technical Paper

The Research on Edge Tearing with Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0593
Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
Technical Paper

Dimension Study of Punched Hole Using Conical Tipped Punches

2016-04-05
2016-01-0364
Dimensional problems for punched holes on a sheet metal stamping part include being undersized and oversized. Some important relationships among tools and products, such as the effect of conical punch tip angle, are not fully understood. To study this effect, sheets of AA6016 aluminum and BH210 steel were punched by punches with different conical tip angles. The test method and test results are presented. The piercing force and withdrawing force when using conical punches were also studied. The results indicate that the oversize issue for a punched hole in a stamped panel is largely due to the combination of the conical tip effect and the stretching-release effect.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Edge Quality on Edge Stretching Limit for Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0416
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Sheet Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0396
Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
Technical Paper

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Spot Weld Using Digital Shearography

2005-04-11
2005-01-0491
Spot Welding is now widely used in the fabrication of sheet metals, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. Spot welds are found in nearly all products where sheet metal is joined. Examples range from a single metal toolbox to nearly 10,000 spot welds found in a typical passenger car. Obviously the quality of the spot weld has a direct impact on the quality of the product. The problem of estimating the spot-weld quality is an important component in quality control. If the weld nuggets are improperly or incompletely formed, or the area surrounding the nugget is smaller than required, the structural integrity of the entire part may be uncertain. Furthermore these inconsistencies are usually internal and are seldom visible to Optical Inspection. This study is focused on the non-destructive evaluation of the spot welds using “Digital Shearography”.
Technical Paper

The Application of 3-D Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry in Assembly Process of Bolted Joints

2005-04-11
2005-01-0896
In this paper, an optical method for inspecting the bolt tension is presented. This method uses 3-D Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) technique to measure and monitor the deformation field on the surface of the clamped member, and to establish a reliable correlation with the bolt tension. A new torque-deformation tension control concept is presented on the basis of this deformation - bolt tension relationship. Because the relationship between the bolt tension and deformation is independent of the frictional variables of the bolt, the inspection and control accuracy by this optical method is more reliable than relying on the torque-tension relationship. This experimental study is completed on a bolted joint. The relationship between the in-plane deformation on a clamped pin and the bolt tension is established. The method for eliminating the effect of the rotation on the deformation measurement is provided.
Technical Paper

Friction Coefficient Evaluation on Aluminum Alloy Sheet Metal Using Digital Image Correlation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1223
The coefficient of friction between surfaces is an important criterion for predicting metal behavior during sheet metal stamping processes. This research introduces an innovative technique to find the coefficient of friction on a lubricated aluminum sheet metal surface by simulating the industrial manufacturing stamping process while using 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) to track the deformation. During testing, a 5000 series aluminum specimen is placed inside a Stretch-Bend-Draw Simulator (SBDS), which operates with a tensile machine to create a stretch and bend effect. The friction coefficient at the contact point between an alloy sheet metal and a punch tool is calculated using an empirical equation previously developed. In order to solve for the unknown friction coefficient, the load force and the drawback force are both required. The tensile machine software only provides the load force applied on the specimen by the load cell.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation and Optimization of Computational Methods for High Pressure Fuel Pipe Brazed Joints

2018-04-03
2018-01-1222
A V-engine high pressure fuel pipe have experienced several failures during dyno engine validations at brazed joints due to combination of static and dynamic engine loads. The braze fillet experience high local stress concentration with large gradients and it was critical to capture strain contour at this spot to properly understand the failure. Strain gauges was used to measure strain but was incapable of capturing the braze fillet due to the small fillet radius and lack of real estate to install the gauge (braze fillet radius ~ 0.10 mm). A whole field optical experiment method Digital Image Correlation was utilized to successfully captured strain contour at area of interest and results fed back to computational model.
Technical Paper

Property and Fiber Orientation Determination for Carbon Fiber Composite

2018-04-03
2018-01-1216
Unexpected severe failures occur during the warm forming procedure of carbon fiber material due to the existence of extremely large deformation/strain. To evaluate this failure, a good understanding the accurate material property under certain loading is important to evaluate the forming feasibility of carbon fiber material. Also, a clear connection between the fiber orientation and the material property helps to increase the accuracy of the forming prediction. Therefore, an experimental test is needed to evaluate the material property as well as the fiber orientation. In this paper, a uniaxial tension test for the prepreg carbon fiber under the warm forming condition is performed. A halogen lamp is used to heat the specimen to reach the warm forming condition. A 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC) is utilized to measure the material property and the fiber orientation in this test, along with a DIP system.
Journal Article

Quality Inspection of Spot Welds using Digital Shearography

2012-04-16
2012-01-0182
Spot Welding is an important welding technique which is widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. One of the keys of checking the quality of the welds is measuring the size of the nugget. In this paper, the Shearographic technique is utilized to test weld joint samples under the thermal loading condition. The goal is to identify the different group of the nuggets (i.e. small, middle, and large sizes, which indicate the quality of spot welds). In the experiments, the sample under test is fixed by a magnet method from behind at the four edges. Thermal loading was applied in the back side and the sample is inspected using the digital Shearographic system in the front side. Results show the great possibility of classifying the nugget size into three groups and the measurement is well repeatable.
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