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Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Diesel Spray

A non-evaporating transient high pressure diesel spray operating under different ambient conditions was studied. Tip penetration and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) were measured using simultaneously the high speed photography and the laser light extinction techniques. Comparisons between experiments and computations were performed. The spray simulations were carried out by KIVA code version two with and without breakup submodel. The effect of the grid spacing on the numerical results was also evaluated. The KIVA simulations consistently underestimate the jet penetration. The computations of SMD are in disagreement with the experiments. These inaccuracies are probably caused by the inadeguate atomization model and, in part, by the limitation of the experimental techniques.
Technical Paper

Multiple Injection in a Mixed Mode GDI Boosted Engine

A numerical investigation is performed with the aim of understanding the potential benefits of multiple injections in the mixed mode boosting operation of a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. The study is carried out by firstly characterizing a high pressure multi-hole injector from the experimental point of view in the split injection operation. Measurements of the fuel injection rate are made through an AVL Meter operating on the Bosch principle. The injector is tested using gasoline in a double pulse strategy. The injection pressure is varied between 5.0 and 25.0 MPa with the pulse durations calibrated for delivering a total mass up to 50 mg/str. The choice of the dwell time between two successive injection events is achieved by firstly defining the minimum time compatible with the mechanical characteristics of both the injector and the injector driver.
Technical Paper

Study of E10 and E85 Effect on Air Fuel Mixing and Combustion Process in Optical Multicylinder GDI Engine and in a Spray Imaging Chamber

The aim of the present work is the study of the combustion process in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine fuelled with ethanol mixed with gasoline at percentages of 10 and 85. The characterization has been made in terms of performance and emission for different injection pressure conditions and the results correlated to the unperturbed non-evaporating evolution of the fuel injected in a pressurized quiescent vessel. Measurements were performed in the optically accessible combustion chamber made by modifying a real 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, high performance GDI engine. The cylinder head was instrumented by using an endoscopic system coupled to high spatial and temporal resolution camera in order to allow the visualization of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The engine is equipped with solenoid-actuated six-hole GDI injectors, 0.14 mm hole diameter, 9.0 g/s @ 10 MPa static flow.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Flash Boiling Evidences of a Multi-Hole GDI Spray under Engine Conditions by Mie-Scattering Measurements

During an injection process, a fluid undergoes a sudden pressure drop across the nozzle. If the pressure downstream the injector is below the saturation value of the fluid, superheated conditions are reached and thermodynamic instabilities realized. In internal combustion engines, flashing conditions greatly influence atomization and vaporization processes of a fuel as well as the mixture formation and combustion. This paper reports imaging behavior of a fuel under both flash boiling and non-flash boiling conditions. A GDI injector, eight-hole, 15.0 cc/s @ 10 MPa static flow, injected a single-component fluid (iso-octane), generating the spray. Experiments were carried out in an optically-accessible constant-volume quiescent vessel by Mie-scattering technique. A C-Mos high-speed camera was used to acquire cycle-resolved images of the spray evolving in the chamber filled with N2 which pressure ranged between 0.05 and 0.3 MPa.
Technical Paper

Tomography of a GDI Spray by PolyCO Based X-Ray Technique

In this paper the investigation with X-ray Tomography on the structure of a gasoline spray from a GDI injector for automotive applications based on polycapillary optics is reported. Table-top experiment using a microfocus Cu Kα X-ray source for radiography and tomography has been used in combination with a polycapillary halflens and a CCD detector. The GDI injector is inserted in a high-pressure rotating device actuated with angular steps Δθ = 1° at the injection pressure of 8.0 MPa. The sinogram reconstruction of the jets by slices permits a 360° spray access to the fuel downstream the nozzle tip. A spatial distribution of the fuel is reported along the direction of six jets giving a measure of the droplet concentration in a circle of 16 mm2 below the nozzle tip at atmospheric backpressure and ambient temperature.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Shadowgraph/Mie Scattering Imaging of Liquid and Vapor Phases of Diesel Sprays and Validation of a Numerical Model

Diesel sprays from an axially-disposed single-hole injector are studied under both non-vaporizing and vaporizing conditions in a constant-volume vessel. A hybrid shadowgraph/Mie-scattering imaging set-up is used to acquire the liquid and vapor phases of the fuel distribution in a near-simultaneous visualization mode by a high-speed camera (40,000 fps). A diesel injector with k0 factor is used, having the exit-hole diameter of 0.1 mm and the ratio L/d =10. The studies are performed at the injection pressures of 70, 120, and 180 MPa, 25.37 kg/m3 ambient gas density, at the environment temperature of 373, 453 and 900 K. The instantaneous tip penetration of the liquid and vapor phases is extracted from the collected images and processed by a properly assessed software, under the various operating conditions. The AVL FIRE™ code is also used to simulate the spray dynamics. The model is validated on the ground of the collected experimental data.
Technical Paper

Iso-Octane Spray from a GDI Multi-Hole Injector under Non- and Flash Boiling Conditions

GDI injection systems have become dominant in passenger cars due to their flexibility in managing and advantages in the fuel economy. With the increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the fuel spray behavior has become essential. Different engine loads produce in a variety of fuel supplying conditions that affect the air/fuel mixture preparation and influence the efficiency and pollutant production. The flash boiling is a particular state that occurs for peculiar thermodynamic conditions of the engine. It could strongly influence the mixture in sub-atmospheric environments with detrimental effects on emissions. In order to obtain an in-depth understanding of the flash boiling phenomena, it is necessary to study the parameters influencing the mixture formation and their appearance in diverse engine conditions.
Journal Article

Measurement of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion upon Different Nozzle Geometry using Hybrid Imaging Technique

High pressure diesel sprays were visualized under vaporizing and combusting conditions in a constant-volume combustion vessel. Near-simultaneous visualization of vapor and liquid phase fuel distribution were acquired using a hybrid shadowgraph/Mie-scattering imaging setup. This imaging technique used two pulsed LED's operating in an alternative manner to provide proper light sources for both shadowgraph and Mie scattering. In addition, combustion cases under the same ambient conditions were visualized through high-speed combustion luminosity measurement. Two single-hole diesel injectors with same nozzle diameters (100μm) but different k-factors (k0 and k1.5) were tested in this study. Detailed analysis based on spray penetration rate curves, rate of injection measurements, combustion indicators and 1D model comparison have been performed.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of High-Pressure Impinging Sprays for CFD Modeling of GDI Engines

Today, Direct-Injection systems are widely used on Spark-Ignition engines in combination with turbo-charging to reduce the fuel-consumption and the knock risks. In particular, the spread of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) systems is mainly related to the use of new generations of multi-hole, high-pressure injectors whose characteristics are quite different with respect to the hollow-cone, low-pressure injectors adopted in the last decade. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign conducted on the spray produced by a GDI six-holes injector into a constant volume vessel with optical access. The vessel was filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Different operating conditions were considered for an injection pressure ranging from 3 to 20 MPa. For each operating condition, spray images were acquired by a CCD camera and then post processed to evaluate the spray penetration and cone angles.