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Technical Paper

Developments in the Use of Multi-Purpose Numerical Simulation Tools to Optimize Combustion Control Parameters for the 2nd Generation of Lean Burn Stratified GDI Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0967
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current results obtained with the first-generation of GDI-powered vehicles launched on the European market. In view of the rather limited success in fuel consumption gain the second-generation of very lean stratified layouts has begun, but this process requires the development and application of new high-level analysis tools. A possible high performance approach is the multi-purpose use of 3-D numerical simulation both in the development and the engine control strategy calibration phases. The development of a small 1.6 liter lean stratified engine project was chosen to demonstrate the dual application capability of the NCF-3D simulation tool. The paper continues with a description of the engine application frame, the basic features of the NCF-3D simulation tool and the latest enhancements made to combustion and fuel composition models within the software frame.
Technical Paper

Streamline Visualisation by Laser Sheet Imaging - A Useful Complementary Optimisation Tool for Intake Manifold Design

1995-02-01
950101
The paper describes the application of laser sheet flow visualisation with numerical image analysis as a useful complementary tool to numerical simulation techniques for the optimisation of fluid dynamics within SI-engine in-take systems. The lay-out of the laser sheet visualisation system and the applied numerical image analysis are discussed in detail. Two applicative examples are given, one of smoke induced visualisation of the internal gas flow of an intake manifold, the other of natural visualisation of fuel injector wall film deposit in the intake runner. Finally is concluded that the addition of visualisation techniques to the development strategy allows a time gain, because it contributes to a rapid understanding of complex flow phenomena.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Fuel Injector Atomizer Layouts for Port Fuel Injection Applications to Meet PL6 and ULEV Requirements

2011-10-04
2011-36-0058
The paper presents the background research on the physics of the droplet coalescence phenomena carried out by an interactive usage of high-level 3-D numerical simulation tools and high-level optical visualization and measurement techniques. The presentation continues with the description of a new injector atomizer plate layout, which enables a physical coalescence control of the droplet population within the entire fuel spray. Finally are presented examples of the impact on exhaust emissions of the introduction the new atomizer plate with coalescence control by engine test bed experiments (steady state low load conditions) and vehicle tests (first cold part of the FTP-cycle).
Technical Paper

The Integral Flex-Vehicle Mixture Control of Alcohol-Based Bio-Fuels - A New Challenge for Fuel-Atomizer Optimization

2008-04-14
2008-01-0437
The paper presents the main reasons for the increasing market share of vehicles with the capacity to run on random bio fuel blends. It describes the philosophy and basic layout of current integral flex mixture preparation systems. The paper demonstrates the necessity to introduce a series of new high-performance analysis tools for further improvement of the mixture preparation system and in particular the fuel injector performance. The paper continues with a discussion of the basic structure of the interactive Virtual Engine Model approach applied to fuel injector atomizer optimization. Test results obtained by application of the new tools to two different series production flex engines are presented. The impact of the improved spray formation capability of the optimized fuel injector atomizers is explained and experimental vehicle FTP-cycle data are reported and discussed.
Technical Paper

DGI - Direct Gasoline Injection Status of Development for Spark-Ignited Engines

2002-11-19
2002-01-3519
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the results obtained with European GDI-powered vehicles launched on the market. Thereafter, a discussion of in-vehicle limitations due to the exhaust gas after-treatment system requirements is given. The paper continues with a description of the current development status of European lean stratified direct injection system layouts. A detailed presentation is made of the mixture preparation system key components, basic control algorithms and the necessary new high-level experimental and analytical development tools. Particularly the topic of the multi-purpose use of 3-D numerical simulation is addressed both in the development and the engine control strategy calibration phases. The development of a small 1.6 liter lean stratified engine project is taken as example to demonstrate the dual application capability of the 3D simulation tool.
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