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Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Approach to Injection and Ignition Optimization of Lean GDI-Combustion Behavior

1999-03-01
1999-01-0173
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current development status of the GDI system layout for the middle displacement engine, typically 2 liter, using the stoichiometric or weak lean concept. Hereafter are discussed the particular requirements for the transition to a small displacement/small bore engine working in stratified lean conditions. The paper continues with a description of the application of the different steps of the optimization methodology for a 1.2 liter, small bore 4 cylinder engine from its original base line MPI version towards the lean stratified operation mode. The latest changes in the combustion model, used in the numerical simulation software applied to the combustion chamber design, are discussed and comparison made with the previous model. The redesign of the combustion chamber geometry, the proper choice of injector atomizer type and location and the use of two-stage injection and multi-spark strategies are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Approach to Productionizing a GDI-2 Stroke Spark Ignited Small Displacement Engine Design

1999-09-28
1999-01-3290
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the environmental conditions with which a future two stroke powered vehicle must comply and explains the reasons for which a direct gasoline injection into the combustion chamber offers a potential solution. The paper continues with a description of the fuel/air mixture injection used in the F.A.S.T. concept and gives a detailed overview of the layout of the 125 cc engine to which it is applied. The structure of its electronic engine management system, mandatory for the necessary control precision, is presented. Hereafter is made a short introduction to the visualization and numerical computation tools used for the engine design optimization. The paper concludes with a detailed presentation and discussion of the experimental results obtained with the engine operated, either in steady state and transient conditions on an engine test rig, and mounted in a classic small dimension two-wheel vehicle submitted to road tests.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Mixture Preparation Approach for Lean Stratified SI-Combustion by a Combined Use of GDI and Electronically Controlled Valve-Timing

2000-03-06
2000-01-0532
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the current status in fuel consumption gain of the GDI-vehicles previously launched on the European market. In order to increase the potential for a further gain in specific fuel consumption the behaviour of 3 different combustion chamber layouts are studied. The chamber layouts are aimed to adapt as well as possible to the particular requirements for application to a small displacement/small bore engine working in stratified lean conditions. The paper continues with a description of the application that shows the different steps of a structured optimisation methodology for a 1.2 litre, small bore 4-cylinder engine. The applications of an air-motion-guided and a wall-guided layout with a mechanically actuated valve train to the same combustion chamber are discussed. The potential of the air-motion-guided concept is enhanced through the introduction of an electromagnetic fully variable valve train.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of Spray Generated by a High Pressure Gasoline Swirl Injector

2002-10-21
2002-01-2697
Experimental measurements and numerical computations were made to characterize a spray generated by a high-pressure swirl injector. The Phase Doppler technique was applied to get information on droplet sizes (d10) and axial velocities at defined distances from the injector tip. Global spray visualization was also made. Computations were carried out using a modified version of KIVA 3V. In particular, the break-up length of the sheet and its dimension were computed from a semi-empirical correlation related to the wave instability theory suggested by Dombrowski, including the modifications introduced by Han and Reitz. Two different approaches were used to describe the initial spray conditions. According to the first, discrete particles with a characteristic size equal to the thickness of the sheet are injected. The second approach assumes, that the particles having a SMD computed by a semi-empirical correlation are injected according to a statistical distribution.
Technical Paper

DGI - Direct Gasoline Injection Status of Development for Spark-Ignited Engines

2002-11-19
2002-01-3519
The first part of the paper gives an overview of the results obtained with European GDI-powered vehicles launched on the market. Thereafter, a discussion of in-vehicle limitations due to the exhaust gas after-treatment system requirements is given. The paper continues with a description of the current development status of European lean stratified direct injection system layouts. A detailed presentation is made of the mixture preparation system key components, basic control algorithms and the necessary new high-level experimental and analytical development tools. Particularly the topic of the multi-purpose use of 3-D numerical simulation is addressed both in the development and the engine control strategy calibration phases. The development of a small 1.6 liter lean stratified engine project is taken as example to demonstrate the dual application capability of the 3D simulation tool.
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