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Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of Heat Transfer in a Diesel Engine with Diesel and PPC Combustion Modes

2011-08-30
2011-01-1838
In this study, an investigation was made on a heavy duty diesel engine using both conventional diesel combustion mode and a partially premixed combustion (PPC) mode. A segment mesh was built up and modeled using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE, where only the closed volume cycle, between IVC and EVO, was modeled. Both combustion modes were validated using experimental data, before a number of heat flux boundary conditions were applied. These conditions were used to evaluate the engine response in terms of engine performance and emission levels for the different percentage of heat rejection. The engine performance was measured in terms of specific fuel consumption and estimated power output, while the calculated net soot and accumulated NOx mass fractions were used for comparing the emission levels. The results showed improved efficiency for both combustion types, but only the PPC combustion mode managed that without increasing the production of NOx emissions severely.
Technical Paper

HCCI Gas Engine: Evaluation of Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emissions - Comparing Producer Gas and Natural Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1196
The Technical University of Denmark, DTU, has constructed, built and tested a gasifier [1, 11] that is fueled with wood chips and achieves a 93% conversion efficiency from wood to producer gas. By combining the gasifier with an internal combustion engine and a generator, a co-generative system can be realized that produces electricity and heat. The gasifier uses the waste heat from the engine for drying and pyrolysis of the wood chips while the produced gas is used to fuel the engine. To achieve high efficiency in converting biomass to electricity it necessitates an engine that is adapted to high efficiency operation using the specific producer gas from the DTU gasifier. So far the majority of gas engines of today are designed and optimized for SI-operation on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Investigation of Exothermic Centers in HCCI Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-0131
The formation of exothermic centers was modeled with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) to investigate their impact on HCCI combustion. By varying the exhaust valve temperature, and thus assigning more realistic wall temperatures, the formation of exothermic centers and the ignition timing was shifted in time. To be able to study the exothermic centers, their formation and their distribution, Scatter plots, standard deviation plots and Probability Density Function (PDF) plots were constructed on the basis of the data the SRM calculations provided. The standard deviation for the particle temperatures was found to be an useful indicator of the degree of homogeneity within the combustion chamber, and thus of how efficient the combustion process was. It was observed that when the standard deviation of the temperature was higher, the emissions of CO and of hydrocarbons present at the end of the closed cycle were higher.
Technical Paper

Studying HCCI Combustion and its Cyclic Variations Versus Heat Transfer, Mixing and Discretization using a PDF Based Approach

2009-04-20
2009-01-0667
The ability to predict cyclic variations is certainly useful in studying engine operating regimes, especially under unstable operating conditions where one single cycle may differ from another substantially and a single simulation may give rather misleading results. PDF based models such as Stochastic Reactor Models (SRM) are able to model cyclic variations, but these may be overpredicted if discretization is too coarse. The range of cyclic variations and the dependence of the ability to correctly assess their mean values on the number of cycles simulated were investigated. In most cases, the average values were assessed correctly on the basis of as few as 10 cycles, but assessing the complete range of cyclic variations could require a greater number of cycles. In studying average values, variations due too coarse discretization being employed are smaller than variations originating from changes in physical parameters, such as heat transfer and mixing parameters.
Technical Paper

Studying the potential efficiency of low heat rejection HCCI engines with a Stochastic Reactor Model

2009-09-13
2009-24-0032
The main losses in internal combustion engines are the heat losses to the cylinder walls and to the exhaust gases. Adiabatic, or low heat rejection engines, have received interest and been studied in several periods in history. Typically, however, these attempts have had to be abandoned when problems with lubrication and overheating components could not be solved satisfactorily. The latest years have seen the emerging of low temperature combustion in engines as well as computational powers that provide new options for highly efficient engines with low heat rejection. Stochastic Reactor Models (SRM) are highly efficient in modeling the kinetics decided low temperature combustion in HCCI and PPC engines. Containing the means to define the variations within the cylinder while employing detailed chemistry, micro mixing and heat transfer modeling, the interaction between heat transfer, exhaust gas energy and the combustion process can be studied with the SRM.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Surrogate Fuels Effect on Ignition Delay and Low Temperature Reaction during Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0903
Fuel effects on ignition delay and low temperature reactions (LTR) during partially premixed combustion (PPC) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DoE). The test matrix included seventeen mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol covering a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. Experiments were performed on a light-duty diesel engine at 8 bar IMEPg, 1500 rpm with a variation in combustion phasing, inlet oxygen concentration and injection pressure. A single injection strategy was used and the start of injection and injection duration were adjusted to achieve the desired load and combustion phasing. The experimental data show that fuels with higher Research Octane Number (RON) values generally produced longer ignition delays. In addition, the alcohol content had significantly stronger effect on ignition delay than the aromatic content.
Technical Paper

Potential ESC Performance of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty PPC Truck Engine: System Simulations based on Single Cylinder Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-0268
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated remarkably high gross indicated engine efficiencies combined with very low engine out emissions. The PPC concept relies on heavy boosting combined with dilution and partial premixing of the charge. The latter is usually achieved with high EGR rates and a separation of the fuel injection from the combustion event. Since more of the produced heat is used for work rather than being wasted with the exhaust gases, concerns have been raised regarding whether it is possible to achieve the required boosting pressures and EGR rates throughout the typical operating regime of a heavy duty (HD) diesel engine through turbocharging only. If supercharging would be required its cost in terms of work would mean a substantial loss of the gain in brake efficiencies of the PPC engine over current HD diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1606
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Partially Premixed Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0139
This paper reports on numerical investigations of the mixing, ignition and combustion processes in a laboratory engine operating under partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The engine is a modified version of a 13-liter Scania D13 engine. The fuel is injected at two different timings with different fuel mass portions at the two injections, with and without swirl. For comparison one single injection simulation with swirl is also performed. In literature it has been found that by optimizing the injection timing and amount of injected fuel at different injection timing, the heat release and combustion process can be optimized and thus high engine efficiency and low emission levels can be achieved. The goal of this study is to improve the understanding of the important phenomena involved. Large Eddy Simulation for the gas phase is coupled with Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) for the liquid phase.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Partially Premixed Combustion Characteristics in Low Load Range with Regards to Fuel Octane Number in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0684
The impact of ignition quality and chemical properties on engine performance and emissions during low load partially premixed combustion (PPC) in a light-duty diesel engine were investigated. Four fuels in the gasoline boiling range, together with Swedish diesel (MK1), were operated at loads between 2 and 8 bar IMEPg at 1500 rpm, with 50% heat released located at 6 crank angle degrees (CAD) after top dead center (TDC). A single injection strategy was used, wherein the start of injection (SOI) and the injection duration were adjusted to achieve desired loads with maintained CA50, as the injection pressure was kept constant at 1000 bar. The objective of this work was to examine the low-load limit for PPC at approximately 50% EGR and λ=1.5, since these levels had been suggested as optimal in earlier studies. The low-load limits with stable combustion were between 5 and 7 bar gross IMEP for the gasoline fuels, higher limit for higher RON values.
Technical Paper

A Fast Tool for Predictive IC Engine In-Cylinder Modelling with Detailed Chemistry

2012-04-16
2012-01-1074
This paper reports on a fast predictive combustion tool employing detailed chemistry. The model is a stochastic reactor based, discretised probability density function model, without spatial resolution. Employing detailed chemistry has the potential of predicting emissions, but generally results in very high CPU costs. Here it is shown that CPU times of a couple of minutes per cycle can be reached when applying detailed chemistry, and CPU times below 10 seconds per cycle can be reached when using reduced chemistry while still catching in-cylinder in-homogeneities. This makes the tool usable for efficient engine performance mapping and optimisation. To meet CPU time requirements, automatically load balancing parallelisation was included in the model. This allowed for an almost linear CPU speed-up with number of cores available.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

2012-09-10
2012-01-1578
Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1602
Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of WHR System in HD Engines Using Conventional Diesel Combustion and Partially-Premixed Combustion

2012-09-24
2012-01-1930
In the truck industry there is a continuous demand to increase the efficiency and to decrease the emissions. To acknowledge both these issues a waste heat recovery system (WHR) is combined with a partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine to deliver an efficient engine system. Over the past decades numerous attempts to increase the thermal efficiency of the diesel engine has been made. One such attempt is the PPC concept that has demonstrated potential for substantially increased thermal efficiency combined with much reduced emission levels. So far most work on increasing engine efficiency has been focused on improving the thermal efficiency of the engine while WHR, which has an excellent potential for another 1-5 % fuel consumption reduction, has not been researched that much yet. In this paper a WHR system using a Rankine cycle has been developed in a modeling environment using IPSEpro.
Technical Paper

Diesel-PPC engine: Predictive Full Cycle Modeling with Reduced and Detailed Chemistry

2011-08-30
2011-01-1781
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) engines have demonstrated a potential for high efficiency and low emissions operation. To be able to study the combustion in detail but also to perform parametric studies on the potential of the PPC concept a one dimensional (1D) engine simulation tool was used with 1; a prescribed burn rate 2; predictive combustion tool with reduced chemical model and 3; predictive combustion tool with detailed chemical models. Results indicate that fast executing reduced chemistry work reasonably well in predicting PPC performance and that n-decane is possibly a suitable diesel substitute in PPC modeling while n-heptane is not.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensitivity of HCCI Auto-Ignition Temperature for Gasoline Surrogate Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1669
An index to relate fuel properties to HCCI auto-ignition would be valuable to predict the performance of fuels in HCCI engines from their properties and composition. The indices for SI engines, the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are known to be insufficient to explain the behavior of oxygenated fuels in an HCCI engine. One way to characterize a fuel is to use the Auto-Ignition Temperature (AIT). The AIT can be extracted from the pressure trace. Another potentially interesting parameter is the amount of Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) that is closely connected to the ignition properties of the fuel. A systematic study of fuels consisting of gasoline surrogate components of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol was made. 21 fuels were prepared with RON values ranging from 67 to 97.
Technical Paper

Using Oxygenated Gasoline Surrogate Compositions to Map RON and MON

2014-04-01
2014-01-1303
Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures which consist of more than 200 different hydrocarbon species. In order to decrease the chemical and physical complexity, oxygenated surrogate components were used to enhance the fundamental understanding of partially premixed combustion (PPC). The ignition quality of a fuel is measured by octane number. There are two methods to measure the octane number: research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). In this paper, RON and MON were measured for a matrix of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol (TERF) blends spanning a wide range of octane number between 60.6 and 97. First, regression models were created to derive RON and MON for TERF blends. The models were validated using the standard octane test for 17 TERF blends. Second, three different TERF blends with an ignition delay (ID) of 8 degrees for a specific operating condition were determined using a regression model.
Technical Paper

Loss Analysis of a HD-PPC Engine with Two-Stage Turbocharging Operating in the European Stationary Cycle

2013-10-14
2013-01-2700
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated substantially higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and gasoline engines (SI). By combining experiments and modeling the presented work investigates the underlying reasons for the improved efficiency, and quantifies the loss terms. The results indicate that it is possible to operate a HD-PPC engine with a production two-stage boost system over the European Stationary Cycle while likely meeting Euro VI and US10 emissions with a peak brake efficiency above 48%. A majority of the ESC can be operated with brake efficiency above 44%. The loss analysis reveals that low in-cylinder heat transfer losses are the most important reason for the high efficiencies of PPC. In-cylinder heat losses are basically halved in PPC compared to CDC, as a consequence of substantially reduced combustion temperature gradients, especially close to the combustion chamber walls.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Intake Pressure on PPC of Conventional Diesel, Gasoline and Ethanol in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2702
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the potential of simultaneously providing high engine efficiency and low emissions. Previous research has shown that with proper combination of Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Air-Fuel equivalence ratio, it is possible to reduce engine-out emissions while still keeping the engine efficiency high. In this paper, the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) and EGR fraction on PPC engine performance (e.g. ignition delay, burn duration, maximum pressure rise rate) and emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), soot and NOX) was investigated in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Swedish diesel fuel (MK1), RON 69 gasoline fuel and 99.5 vol% ethanol were tested. Fixed fueling rate and single injection strategy were employed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison of Heat Losses in Stepped-Bowl and Re-Entrant Combustion Chambers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0732
Heat loss is one of the greatest energy losses in engines. More than half of the heat is lost to cooling media and exhaust losses, and they thus dominate the internal combustion engine energy balance. Complex processes affect heat loss to the cylinder walls, including gas motion, spray-wall interaction and turbulence levels. The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the heat transfer characteristics of a stepped-bowl piston geometry to a conventional re-entrant diesel bowl studied previously and here used as the baseline geometry. The stepped-bowl geometry features a low surface-to-volume ratio compared to the baseline bowl, which is considered beneficial for low heat losses. Speed, load, injection pressure, swirl level, EGR rate and air/fuel ratio (λ) were varied in a multi-cylinder light duty engine operated in conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode.
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