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Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Flow over a Valve in a Simplified Cylinder Geometry

This study focuses on gaining a deeper understanding on the formation of turbulence and other in-cylinder flow structures caused by the intake jets during the intake stroke in internal combustion engines. This is important as the in-cylinder turbulence has a large effect on the mixing of fuel and oxidizer. A fine resolution large eddy simulation (LES) is carried out on an incompressible flow (Re is equivalent to 100,000) over a static valve (lift d = 7 mm) alongside with three other simulations using coarser meshes. The problem is studied in a simplified valve-cylinder geometry on which experimental data by Yasar et al., (2006) is available. The vortex cores, produced by the shear layer of the intake jets, are visualized using the λ₂ definition for vortex cores. The governing flow structures are identified and some features of the flow's mixing capabilities are observed. Additionally, the mixing is studied by releasing a passive scalar into to the flow.
Journal Article

Characteristics of High Pressure Jets for Direct Injection Gas Engine

The direct injection (DI) natural gas engine is considered as one of the promising technologies to achieve the continuing goals of the higher efficiency and reduced emissions for internal combustion engines. Shock wave phenomena can easily occur near the nozzle exit when high pressure gaseous fuel is injected directly into the engine cylinder. In the present study, high pressure gas issuing from a prototype gas injector was experimentally studied using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Acetone was selected as a fuel tracer. The effects of injection pressures on the flow structure and turbulent mixing were investigated based on a series of high resolution images. The jet macroscopic structures, such as jet penetration, cone angle and jet volume, are analyzed under different injection pressures. Results show that barrel shock waves can significantly influence the jet flow structure and turbulent mixing.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Channel Design to Cylinder Charge and Initial Swirl

Two different medium-speed diesel engine cylinder head designs have been studied. The focus of the study has been the effect of intake channel design in the in-cylinder flow. The study has been carried out by CFD. The first cylinder head is a standard Wärtsilä 20 cylinder head and the second one is a specially designed head for a single cylinder research engine, called Extreme Value Engine (EVE). The CFD boundary conditions have been simulated by the help of a 1-d simulation code. In the full load cases the maximum cylinder pressure was 300 bar. Simulations have been done at lower load level too. One simulation with the new cylinder head was carried out with one intake valve closed in order to get an idea of the swirl to be generated by this approach. In the study the in-cylinder flow field, the cylinder charge and turbulence kinetic energy have been examined.
Technical Paper

Improving the Accuracy of 1-D Fuel Injection Modeling

In this study, one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulation software was utilized in producing common rail diesel fuel injection for varying injection parameters with enhanced accuracy. Injection modeling refinement is motivated by improved comprehension of the effects of various physical phenomena within the injector. In addition, refined injection results yield boundary conditions for three-dimensional CFD simulations. The criteria for successful simulation results were evaluated upon experimental test run data that have been reliably obtained, primarily total injected mass per cycle. A common rail diesel fuel delivery system and its core mechanics were presented. System factors most critical to fuel delivery were focalized. Models of two solenoid-type common rail injectors of different physical sizes and applications were enhanced.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on High Pressure Pulsed Jets for DI Gas Engine Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence

Compressed natural gas direct-injection (CNG-DI) engines based on diesel cycle combustion system with pilot ignition have ability to achieve high thermal efficiency and low emissions. Generally, underexpanded jets can be formed when the high pressure natural gas is injected into the combustion chamber. In such conditions, shock wave phenomena are the typical behaviors of the jet, which can significantly influence the downstream flow structure and turbulent mixing. In the present study, the characteristics of high-pressure transient jets were investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone as a fuel tracer. The evolution of the pulsed jet shows that there are three typical jet flow patterns (subsonic, moderately underexpanded, and highly underexpanded) during the injection. The full injection process of high-pressure pulsed jets is well described with the help of these shock wave structures.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of the Intake Flow in a Realistic Single Cylinder Configuration

The present paper focuses on gaining a deeper understanding about the turbulent flow inside an engine cylinder using large eddy simulation. While the main motivation of the current study is to gain a deeper understanding of the flow patterns and especially about the swirl, the background motivation of this study is the development and testing of suitable methods for the large eddy simulation of combustion engines and the validation of the used simulation methodology. In particular, we study the swirl and other flow features generated by the intake jets inside the cylinder. The simulated geometry is the Sisu Diesel 84 engine cylinder where the exhaust valves are closed and the intake valves have constant valve lifts. Furthermore, the piston has been removed so that the flow is able to exit from the opposite end of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Field of a Diesel Engine

The flow through the valves of an engine cylinder head is very complex in nature due to very high gas velocities and strong flow separation. However, it is also the typical situation in almost every engine related flow. In order to gain better understanding of the flow features after the cylinder head, and to gain knowledge of the performance level that can be expected from CFD analysis, flow field measurements and computations were made in an engine rig. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and paddle wheel measurements have been conducted in a static heavy-duty diesel engine rig to characterize the flow features with different valve lifts and pressure differences. These measurements were compared with CFD predictions of the same engine. The simulations were done with the standard k-ε turbulence model and with the RNG turbulence model using the Star-CD flow solver.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in a Medium-Speed Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine using Miller Cycle with Very Advanced Valve Timing

The objective of this study is to achieve high reduction of NOx emissions in a medium-speed single-cylinder research engine. The main feature of this research engine is that the gas exchange valve timing is completely adjustable with electro-hydraulic actuators. The study is carried out at high engine load and using a very advanced Miller valve timing. Since the engine has no turbocharger, but a separate charge air system, 1-D simulations are carried out to find the engine setup, which would be close to the operating points of a real engine. The obtained NOx reduction is over 40% with no penalty in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Optical In-Cylinder Measurements of a Large-Bore Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

The objective of this study was to build up an optical access into a large bore medium-speed research engine and carry out the first fuel spray Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the running large bore medium-speed engine in high pressure environment. The aim was also to measure spray penetration with same optical access and apparatus. The measurements were performed in a single-cylinder large bore medium-speed research engine, the Extreme Value Engine (EVE) with optical access into the combustion chamber. The authors are not aware of any other studies on optical spray measurements in large bore medium-speed diesel engines. Successful optical measurements of the fuel spray penetration and the velocity fields were carried out. This confirms that the exceptional component design and laser sheet alignment used in this study proved to be valid for optical fuel spray measurements in large-bore medium-speed diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of the Initial Turbulence Prior to Combustion in a Large Bore Diesel Engine

The study aims at providing more accurate initial conditions for turbulence prior to combustion with the help of a four valve, large bore diesel engine CFD model. Combustion simulations are typically done with a sector mesh and initial turbulence in these simulations is usually taken from relatively inaccurate correlations. This study also aims at developing a more accurate initial turbulence correlation for combustion simulations. A one-dimensional model was first used to provide boundary conditions as well as the initial flow conditions at the beginning of the simulation. Steady state and transient boundary conditions were studied. Also, the standard κ - ε and RNG/κ - ε turbulence models were compared. From the averaged values of turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate over the cylinder volume, a re-tuned correlation for defining the initial turbulent conditions at bottom dead center (BDC) prior to the compression stroke is proposed.
Technical Paper

Computational Considerations of Fuel Spray Mixing in an HCCI Operated Optical Diesel Engine

Fuel spray mixing has been analyzed numerically in a single-cylinder optical research engine with a flat piston top. In the study, a narrow spray angle has been used to align the sprays towards the piston top. Fuel spray mass flow rate has been simulated with 1-D code in order to have reliable boundary condition for the CFD simulations. Different start of fuel injections were tested as well as three charge air pressures and two initial mixture temperatures. Quantitative analysis was performed for the evaporation rates, mixture homogeneity at top dead center, and for the local air-fuel ratios. One of the observations of this study was that there exists an optimum start of fuel injection when the rate of spray evaporation and the mixture homogeneity are considered.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Charge, Initial Flow Field and Fuel Injection Boundary Condition in the Multidimensional Modeling of Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines

Cylinder charge, cylinder flow field and fuel injection play the dominant roles in controlling combustion in compression ignition engines. Respective computational cylinder charge, initial flow field and fuel injection boundary affect combustion simulation and the quality of emission prediction. In this study the means of generating the initial values and boundary data are presented and the effect of different methods is discussed. This study deals with three different compression ignition engines with cylinder diameters of 111, 200 and 460 mm. The initial cylinder charge has been carefully analyzed through gas exchange pressure recordings and corresponding 1-dimensional simulation. The swirl generated by intake ports in a high-speed engine is simulated and measured. The combustion simulation using a whole cylinder model was compared with a sector model simulation result.
Technical Paper

Comparing Single-Step and Multi-Step Chemistry Using The Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion Model In Two Diesel Engines

Three-dimensional diesel engine combustion simulations with single-step chemistry have been compared with two-step and three-step chemistry by means of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion model using the Star-CD program. The second reaction describes the oxidation of CO and the third reaction describes the combustion of H2. The comparisons have been performed for two heavy-duty diesel engines. The two-step chemistry was investigated for a purely kinetically controlled, for a mixing limited and for a combination of kinetically and mixing limited oxidation. For the latter case, two different descriptions of the laminar reaction rates were also tested. The best agreement with the experimental cylinder pressure has been achieved with the three-step mechanism but the differences with respect to the two-step and single-step reactions were small.
Technical Paper

Relating Integral Length Scale to Turbulent Time Scale and Comparing k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulence Models in Diesel Combustion Simulation

A modified version of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time combustion model and the Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model have been implemented in the flow solver Star-CD. Combustion simulations of three DI diesel engines, utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model and a modified version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model, have been performed and evaluated with respect to combustion performance and emissions. Adjustments of the turbulent characteristic combustion time coefficient, which were necessary to match the experimental cylinder peak pressures of the different engines, have been justified in terms of non-equilibrium turbulence considerations. The results confirm the existence of a correlation between the integral length scale and the turbulent time scale. This correlation can be used to predict the combustion time scale in different engines.
Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Valve Train Design for a New Gas Exchange Process

The design and testing of the valve train for a new two-stroke diesel engine concept [1,2] is presented. The gas exchange of this process requires extremely fast-acting inlet valves, which constituted a very demanding designing task. A simulation model of the prototype valve train was constructed with commercially available software. The simulation program served as the main tool for optimizing the dynamic behavior of the valve train. The prototype valve train was built according to the simulations and valve acceleration measurements were performed in order to validate the simulation results. The simulations and measurements are presented in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Performance Simulation of a Compression Ignition Free Piston Engine

A dual-piston, two-stroke, compression ignition free piston engine has been simulated with zero- and one-dimensional performance simulation codes. The simulation models used in the codes have been developed to analyze and improve the internal combustion engine process of a hydraulic free piston engine prototype. The prototype was designed and constructed in Tampere University of Technology at the Institute of Hydraulics and Automation. Performance simulation analyses were conducted in Helsinki University of Technology at the Internal Combustion Engine Laboratory. The zero-dimensional model is used for the simulation of piston dynamics. The one-dimensional model is used for performance simulation, especially for the simulation of gas exchange process. The simulation results were verified through prototype engine measurements.
Technical Paper

Novel Crank Mechanism Increasing Engine Efficiency and Reducing CO2 Emissions

This study presents a novel crank mechanism which enables easy and fast compression ratio adjustment. The novel crank mechanism and piston travel are explained and highlighted. The basic idea is that eccentric gear is installed on a crankshaft web. Eccentric gear is fitted to the big end of the connection rod and eccentricity is controlled by rotating the control gear a discrete amount. Thus the position of eccentricity is varied and controls an effective stroke length. The compression ratio is adjusted to best fit current load demand, either optimizing fuel efficiency or engine power and torque. Adjustments are individual to each cylinder. The system is capable of adjusting from min to max within 10 milliseconds [ms]. Emphasis is on reduction of CO2 emissions and reducing fuel consumption, especially at part load condition. The governing mechanical equations are presented.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Modeling Coke Particle Emissions from Large Diesel Engines Using Heavy Fuel Oil

In the present study, a new approach for modelling emissions of coke particles or cenospheres from large diesel engines using HFO (Heavy fuel oil) was studied. The model used is based on a multicomponent droplet mass transfer and properties model that uses a continuous thermodynamics approach to model the complex composition of the HFO fuel and the resulting evaporation behavior of the fuel droplets. Cenospheres are modelled as the residue left in the fuel droplets towards the end of the simulation. The mass-transfer and fuel properties models were implemented into a cylinder section model based on the Wärtsilä W20 engine in the CFD-code Star CD v.4.24. Different submodels and corresponding parameters were tuned to match experimental data of cylinder pressures available from Wärtsilä for the studied cases. The results obtained from the present model were compared to experimental results found in the literature.