Influence of Driving Cycles on Powered Two-Wheelers Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Cold Start Behavior
A wide investigation on powered two-wheelers (PTWs) is presented, aiming at the analysis of the influence of the driving characteristics on PTWs exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, a deeper comprehension of the engine and after-treatment system behavior within the cold start transient and the evaluation of cold start additional emissions for different two-wheelers classes. The study was developed with reference to an European context focusing on Euro 3 motorcycles and Euro 2 mopeds. An experimental investigation on instantaneous speed measurements was carried out with instrumented motorcycles, considering typical urban trips in the city of Genoa. A selection of speed profiles was then performed by processing experimental values.