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Technical Paper

A thermodynamic Mean Value Model of the intake and exhaust system of a turbocharged engine for HiL/SiL applications.

2009-09-13
2009-24-0121
Regarding automotive applications, Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have become very complex plants to comply with present and future requirements in reduction of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and performance improvement. As a consequence, the development of engine control and diagnostic system is a key aspect in the powertrain design. Mathematical models are useful tools in this direction, with applications that range from the definition of optimised management systems, to Hardware- and Software-in-the-Loop testing (HiL and SiL) and to modelbased control strategies. To this extent an original library has been developed by the authors for the simulation of last generation automotive engines. Library blocks were used to assembly a sub-model of the typical intake and exhaust system of a turbocharged engine (with VGT, intercooler, EGR circuit with cooler and throttle).
Technical Paper

A Mean Value Model of the Exhaust System with SCR for an Automotive Diesel Engine

2009-09-13
2009-24-0131
Nowadays requirements towards a reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) keep on pushing manufacturers to improve engines performance through the enhancement of existing subsystems (e.g.: electronic fuel injection, air systems) and the introduction of specific devices (e.g.: exhaust gas recirculation systems, SCR, …). Modern systems require a combined design and application of different after-treatment devices. Mathematical models are useful tools to investigate the complexity of different system layouts, to design and to validate (HIL/SIL testing) control strategies for the after-treatment management. This study presents a mean value model of an exhaust system with SCR; it has been coupled with a common rail diesel engine combustion black box model (Neural Network based). So, dedicated models for exhaust pipes, oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter and selective catalytic converter are developed.
Technical Paper

UEGO-based Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Rate Measurement

2012-09-10
2012-01-1627
New and upcoming exhaust emissions regulations and fuel consumption reduction requirements are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. Especially in the case of Compression Ignition (CI) engines, the HC-CO-NOx-PM after-treatment system is becoming extremely expensive and sophisticated, and the necessity to further reduce engine-out emission levels, without significantly penalizing fuel consumption figures, may lead to the adoption of intricate and challenging intake-exhaust systems configurations. The adoption of both long- and short-route Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems is one example of such situation, and the need to precisely measure (or estimate) mass flow rates in the various elements of the gas exchange circuit is one of the consequences.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Optimization of Euro 6 Compliant Light Commercial Vehicles Equipped with SCR

2014-04-01
2014-01-1356
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system, installed on the exhaust line, is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for Euro 6 compliancy for light and medium duty trucks and bigger passenger cars. Moreover, new more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed for Euro 6c stage and they are scheduled to be applied by the end of 2017. In this context, the interest for SCR technology and its application on light-duty trucks is growing, with a special focus on its potential benefit in term of fuel consumption reduction, thanks to combustion optimization. Nevertheless, the need to warm up the exhaust gas line, to meet the required NOx conversion efficiency, remains an issue for such kind of applications.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Simulation Methodology of Thermal Management Systems for the CO2 Reduction after Engine Cold Start

2015-04-14
2015-01-0343
The emissions limits of CO2 for vehicles are becoming more stringent with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is adopted to measure emissions for all new internal combustion engines in the European Union, and it is performed on cold vehicle, starting at a temperature of 22°C ± 2°C. Consequently, the cold-start efficiency of internal combustion engine is becoming of predominant interest. Since at cold start the lubricant oil viscosity is higher than at the target operating temperature, the consequently higher energy losses due to increased frictions can substantially affect the emission cycle results in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A suitable thermal management system, such as an exhaust-to-oil heat exchanger, could help to raise the oil temperature more quickly.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management Strategies for SCR After Treatment Systems

2013-09-08
2013-24-0153
While the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is actually a quasi-standard equipment in the European Diesel passenger cars market, an interesting solution to fulfill NOx emission limits for the next EU 6 legislation is the application of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system on the exhaust line, to drastically reduce NOx emissions. In this context, one of the main issues is the performance of the SCR system during cold start and warm up phases of the engine. The exhaust temperature is too low to allow thermal activation of the reactor and, consequently, to promote high conversion efficiency and significant NOx concentration reduction. This is increasingly evident the smaller the engine displacement, because of its lower exhaust system temperature (reduced gross power while producing the same net power, i.e., higher efficiency).
Technical Paper

Development of an Urea Supply System for the SCR Catalyst

2013-01-09
2013-26-0047
The increase in the fuel price and more stringent regulations on greenhouse gases (CO2) make the engine compression ignition technology even more attractive in the context of internal combustion engines. This is because the modern turbocharged direct injection engines, with the common rail fuel system, are characterized by high combustion efficiency and power density, that make them particularly suitable both for applications on and off road. On the other hand, the compression ignition engines are subject to a heavy technological developments to meet the more stringent regulations on emissions of exhaust pollutants, especially PM and NOx. The adopted technologies have two main approaches, on the combustion and on the exhaust gas aftertreatment. The measures applied for combustion can reduce emissions, but with the risk of penalizing the other engine performances, such as noise, power output and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Application of Acoustic and Vibration-Based Knock Detection Techniques to a High Speed Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0786
Knock control systems based on engine block vibrations analysis are widely adopted in passenger car engines, but such approach shows its main limits at high engine speeds, since knock intensity measurement becomes less reliable due to the increased background mechanical noise. For small two wheelers engines, knock has not been historically considered a crucial issue, mainly due to small-sized combustion chambers and mixture enrichment. Due to more stringent emission regulations and in search of reduced CO2 emissions, an effective on-board knock controller acquires today greater importance also for motorcycle applications, since it could protect the engine when different fuel types are used, and it could significantly reduce fuel consumption (by avoiding lambda enrichment and/or allowing higher compression ratios to be adopted). These types of engines typically work at high rotational speeds and the reduced signal to noise ratio makes knock onset difficult to identify.
Journal Article

Non-Intrusive Methodology for Estimation of Speed Fluctuations in Automotive Turbochargers under Unsteady Flow Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1645
The optimization of turbocharging systems for automotive applications has become crucial in order to increase engine performance and meet the requirements for pollutant emissions and fuel consumption reduction. Unfortunately, performing an optimal turbocharging system control is very difficult, mainly due to the fact that the flow through compressor and turbine is highly unsteady, while only steady flow maps are usually provided by the manufacturer. For these reasons, one of the most important quantities to be used onboard for optimal turbocharger system control is the rotational speed fluctuation, since it provides information both on turbocharger operating point and on the energy of the unsteady flow in the intake and exhaust circuits. This work presents a methodology that allows determining the instantaneous turbocharger rotational speed through a proper frequency processing of the signal coming from one accelerometer mounted on the turbocharger compressor.
Journal Article

Acoustic Emission Processing for Turbocharged GDI Engine Control Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1622
In the field of passenger car engines, recent research advances have proven the effectiveness of downsized, turbocharged and direct injection concepts, applied to gasoline combustion systems, to reduce the overall fuel consumption while respecting particularly stringent exhaust emissions limits. Knock and turbocharger control are two of the most critical factors that influence the achievement of maximum efficiency and satisfactory drivability, for this new generation of engines. The sound emitted from an engine encloses many information related to its operating condition. In particular, the turbocharger whistle and the knock clink are unmistakable sounds. This paper presents the development of real-time control functions, based on direct measurement of the engine acoustic emission, captured by an innovative and low cost acoustic sensor, implemented on a platform suitable for on-board application.
Technical Paper

Development and Software in the Loop Validation of a Model-based Water Injection Combustion Controller for a GDI TC Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1174
Turbocharged (TC) engines work at high Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), resulting in high in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, improving thermal efficiency, but at the same time increasing the possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. To mitigate knocking conditions, engine control systems typically apply spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Many recent studies have advocated Water Injection (WI) as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques. Water reduces temperatures in the end gas zone due to its high latent heat of vaporization. Furthermore, water vapor acts as diluent in the combustion process. In this paper, the development of a novel closed-loop, model-based WI controller is discussed and critically analyzed.
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