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Technical Paper

Effects of Seat and Sitter Dimensions on Pressure Distribution in Automotive Seats

2017-03-28
2017-01-1390
Seat fit is characterized by the spatial relationship between the seat and the vehicle occupant’s body. Seat surface pressure distribution is one of the best available quantitative measures of this relationship. However, the relationships between sitter attributes, pressure, and seat fit have not been well established. The objective of this study is to model seat pressure distribution as a function of the dimensions of the seat and the occupant’s body. A laboratory study was conducted using 12 production driver seats from passenger vehicles and light trucks. Thirty-eight men and women sat in each seat in a driving mockup. Seat surface pressure distribution was measured on the seatback and cushion. Relevant anthropometric dimensions were recorded for each participant and standardized dimensions based on SAE J2732 (2008) were acquired for each test seat.
Technical Paper

Comparison of ATD and Driver Knee Positions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0390
Contact between the knees and knee bolster commonly occurs in frontal collisions. The contact region on the bolster and the knee anatomy involved are related to the pre-crash positioning of the knees. The location of the distal (or infra-) patella was recorded on volunteers of widely varying stature after they had selected a comfortable driving position in mockups of three vehicles representing a large variation in size and shape: sedan, crossover SUV, and full-size pickup. On average, the right knees were grouped more tightly and were located more forward and lower than the left knees. On average, the knees were positioned 200 mm from the knee bolster for all subjects. The range of distance separating the distal patellae (within subject knee-to-knee distance) varied from 184–559 mm for all subjects for the three vehicles.
Technical Paper

Modeling Vehicle Ingress and Egress Using the Human Motion Simulation Framework

2008-06-17
2008-01-1896
The ease of getting into and out of passenger cars and light trucks is a critical component of customer acceptance and product differentiation. In commercial vehicles, the health and safety of drivers is affected by the design of the steps and handholds they use to get into and out of the cab. Ingress/egress assessment appears to represent a substantial application opportunity for digital human models. The complexity of the design space and the range of possible biomechanical and subjective measures of interest mean that developing useful empirical models is difficult, requiring large-scale subject testing with physical mockups. Yet, ingress and egress motions are complex and strongly affected by the geometric constraints and driver attributes, posing substantial challenges in creating meaningful simulations using figure models.
Technical Paper

Considering Driver Balance Capability in Truck Shifter Design

2006-07-04
2006-01-2360
A person's ability to perform a task is often limited by their ability to maintain balance. This is particularly true in lateral work performed in seated environments. For a truck driver operating the shift lever of a manual transmission, excessive shift forces can necessitate pulling on the steering wheel with the other hand to maintain balance, creating a potentially unsafe condition. An analysis of posture and balance in truck shifter operation was conducted using balance limits to define the acceptable range of shifter locations. The results are dependent on initial driver position, reach postures, and shoulder strength. The effects of shifter force direction and magnitude were explored to demonstrate the application of the analysis method. This methodology can readily be applied to other problems involving hand-force exertions in seated environments.
Technical Paper

Methods for Laboratory Investigation of Truck and Bus Driver Postures

2000-12-04
2000-01-3405
Few studies have systematically examined the effects of truck and bus workstation geometry on driver posture and position. This paper presents methods for determining drivers' postural responses and preferred component locations using a reconfigurable vehicle mockup. Body landmark locations recorded using a three-dimensional digitizer are used to compute a skeletal-linkage representation of the drivers' posture. A sequential adjustment procedure is used to determine the preferred positions and orientations of key components, including the seat, steering wheel, and pedals. Data gathered using these methods will be used to create new design tools for trucks and buses, including models of driver-selected seat position, eye location, and needed component adjustment ranges. The results will also be used to create accurate posture-prediction models for use with human modeling software.
Technical Paper

Methods for In-Vehicle Measurement of Truck Driver Postures

2001-11-12
2001-01-2821
Effective application of human figure models to truck interior design requires accurate data on the postures and positions of truck drivers. Errors in positioning of figure models propagate to errors in reach, visibility, and other analyses. This paper describes methods used in a recent study to measure in-vehicle driving postures in Class 6, 7, and 8 trucks. A three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine was used to measure body landmark locations after a driver completed a short road course. The data were used to validate posture-prediction models developed in a previous laboratory study. Vehicle calibration, driver selection, and testing methods are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Geometric Visibility of Mirror Mounted Turn Signals

2005-04-11
2005-01-0449
Turn signals mounted on exterior rearview mirrors are increasingly being used as original equipment on passenger cars and light trucks. The potential for mirror-mounted turn signals (MMTS) to improve the geometric visibility of turn signals is examined in this paper. A survey of U.S. and UN-ECE regulations showed that the turn signals of a vehicle that is minimally compliant with U.S. regulations are not visible to a driver of a nearby vehicle in an adjacent lane. Measurements of mirror location and window geometry were made on 74 passenger cars and light trucks, including 38 vehicles with fender-mounted turn signals (FMTS). These data were combined with data on driver eye locations from two previous studies to assess the relative visibility of MMTS and conventional signals. Simulations were conducted to examine the potential for signals to be obstructed when a driver looks laterally through the passenger-side window.
Technical Paper

Torso Kinematics in Seated Reaches

2004-06-15
2004-01-2176
Simulations of humans performing seated reaches require accurate descriptions of the movements of the body segments that make up the torso. Data to generate such simulations were obtained in a laboratory study using industrial, auto, and truck seats. Twelve men and women reached to push-button targets located throughout their right-hand reach envelopes as their movements were recorded using an electromagnetic tracking system. The data illustrate complex patterns of motion that depend on target location and shoulder range of motion. Pelvis motion contributes substantially to seated reach capability. On padded seats, the effective center of rotation of the pelvis is often within the seat cushion below the pelvis rather than at the hips. Lumbar spine motions differ markedly depending on the location of the target. A categorization of reach targets into four zones differentiated by torso kinematics is proposed.
Technical Paper

A Method for Measuring the Field of View in Vehicle Mirrors

2003-03-03
2003-01-0297
A new method is presented for physically measuring drivers' field of view in rearview mirrors. A portable coordinate measurement apparatus (FARO Arm) is used to measure the mirror locations, contours, and curvature. Measurements of the driver's head and eye locations while looking into each mirror are also made. Raytracing is used to map the two- or three-dimensional field of view in each mirror. The method differentiates between monocular, binocular, and ambinocular fields of view, and can account for head movements. This method has been applied to passenger cars, light trucks, and heavy trucks to document how drivers aim their mirrors during normal use.
Journal Article

Distribution of Belt Anchorage Locations in the Second Row of Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1157
Seat belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant protection. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 210 specifies requirements for the layout of the anchorages relative to the seating reference point and seat back angle established by the SAE J826 H-point manikin. Sled testing and computational simulation has established that belt anchorage locations have a strong effect on occupant kinematics, particularly for child occupants using the belt as their primary restraint. As part of a larger study of vehicle geometry, the locations of the anchorage points in the second-row, outboard seating positions of 83 passenger cars and light trucks with a median model year of 2005 were measured. The lower anchorage locations spanned the entire range of lap belt angles permissible under FMVSS 210 and the upper anchorages (D-ring locations) were distributed widely as well.
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