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Technical Paper

Biomechanical Investigation of Airbag-Induced Upper-Extremity Injuries

1997-11-12
973325
The factors that influence airbag-induced upper-extremity injuries sustained by drivers were investigated in this study. Seven unembalmed human cadavers were used in nineteen direct-forearm-interaction static deployments. A single horizontal-tear-seam airbag module and two different inflators were used. Spacing between the instrumented forearm and the airbag module was varied from 10 cm to direct contact in some tests. Forearm-bone instrumentation included triaxial accelerometry, crack detection gages, and film targets. Internal airbag pressure was also measured. The observed injuries were largely transverse, oblique, and wedge fractures of the ulna or radius, or both, similar to those reported in field investigations. Tears of the elbow joint capsule were also found, both with and without fracture of the forearm.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

2009-06-09
2009-01-2279
Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Human Subject Testing in Support of ASPECT

1999-03-01
1999-01-0960
The ASPECT program, conducted to develop new Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools, used posture and position data from hundreds of vehicle occupants to develop a new physical manikin and related tools. Analysis of the relationships between anthropometric measures established the criteria for subject selection. The study goals and the characteristics of the data collected determined the sampling approach and number of subjects tested in each study. Testing was conducted in both vehicle and laboratory vehicle mockups. This paper describes the subject sampling strategies, anthropometric issues, and general data collection methods used for the program's eight posture studies.
Technical Paper

ASPECT Manikin Applications and Measurements for Design, Audit, and Benchmarking

1999-03-01
1999-01-0965
The ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) manikin provides new capabilities for vehicle and seat measurement while maintaining continuity with previous practices. This paper describes how the manikin is used in the development of new designs, the audit verification of build, and in benchmarking competitive vehicles and seats. The measurement procedures are discussed in detail, along with the seat and package dimensions that are associated with the new tool.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the ASPECT Manikin

1999-03-01
1999-01-0963
The primary objective of the ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) program was to develop a new generation of the SAE J826 H-point manikin. The new ASPECT manikin builds on the long-term success of the H-point manikin while adding new measurement capability and improved ease of use. The ASPECT manikin features an articulated torso linkage to measure lumbar support prominence; new contours based on human subject data; a new weighting scheme; lightweight, supplemental thigh, leg, and shoe segments; and a simpler, user-friendly installation procedure. This paper describes the new manikin in detail, including the rationale and motivation for the design features. The ASPECT manikin maintains continuity with the current SAE J826 H-point manikin in important areas while providing substantial new measurement capability.
Technical Paper

New Concepts in Vehicle Interior Design Using ASPECT

1999-03-01
1999-01-0967
The ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) program developed a new physical manikin for seat measurement and new techniques for integrating the seat measurements into the vehicle design process. This paper presents an overview of new concepts in vehicle interior design that have resulted from the ASPECT program and other studies of vehicle occupant posture and position conducted at UMTRI. The new methods result from an integration of revised versions of the SAE seat position and eyellipse models with the new tools developed in ASPECT. Measures of seat and vehicle interior geometry are input to statistical posture and position prediction tools that can be applied to any specified user population or individual occupant anthropometry.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Methods for Predicting Automobile Driver Posture

2000-06-06
2000-01-2180
Recent research in the ASPECT (Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools) program has led to the development of a new method for automobile driver posture prediction, known as the Cascade Model. The Cascade Model uses a sequential series of regression functions and inverse kinematics to predict automobile occupant posture. This paper presents an alternative method for driver posture prediction using data-guided kinematic optimization. The within-subject conditional distributions of joint angles are used to infer the internal cost functions that guide tradeoffs between joints in adapting to different vehicle configurations. The predictions from the two models are compared to in-vehicle driving postures.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Model of Gait and Transition Stepping for Simulation of Industrial Workcell Tasks

2007-06-12
2007-01-2478
Industrial tasks performed by standing workers are among those most commonly simulated using digital human models. Workers often walk, turn, and take acyclic steps as they perform these tasks. Current h uman modeling tools lack the capability to simulate these whole body motions accurately. Most models simulate walking by replaying joint angle trajectories corresponding to a general gait pattern. Turning is simulated poorly if at all, and violations of kinematic constraints between the feet and ground are common. Moreover, current models do not accurately predict foot placement with respect to loads and other hand targets, diminishing the utility of the associated ergonomic analyses. A new approach to simulating stepping and walking in task-oriented activities is proposed. Foot placements and motions are predicted from operator and task characteristics using empirical models derived from laboratory data and validated using field data from an auto assembly plant.
Technical Paper

Methods for Laboratory Investigation of Truck and Bus Driver Postures

2000-12-04
2000-01-3405
Few studies have systematically examined the effects of truck and bus workstation geometry on driver posture and position. This paper presents methods for determining drivers' postural responses and preferred component locations using a reconfigurable vehicle mockup. Body landmark locations recorded using a three-dimensional digitizer are used to compute a skeletal-linkage representation of the drivers' posture. A sequential adjustment procedure is used to determine the preferred positions and orientations of key components, including the seat, steering wheel, and pedals. Data gathered using these methods will be used to create new design tools for trucks and buses, including models of driver-selected seat position, eye location, and needed component adjustment ranges. The results will also be used to create accurate posture-prediction models for use with human modeling software.
Technical Paper

Application of Digital Human Modeling to the Design of a Postal Delivery Vehicle

2005-06-14
2005-01-2675
The development of a new carrier route vehicle for the U.S. Postal Service began with the design of the vehicle interior from an operator-centered perspective. A task analysis of the postal worker while driving and while performing mail-handling operations guided the layout of the vehicle interior. The Jack™ human modeling software was used, along with SAE Recommended Practices and other tools, to create a vehicle environment that will accommodate a large percentage of the operator population. The challenges of designing for this unique work environment provided a good opportunity to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the available human factors tools, including the Jack™ digital human figure model. This paper describes the development of the vehicle interior, discusses some lessons learned, and concludes with recommendations for increased functionality and improved integration of vehicle interior design tools.
Technical Paper

Development of Seatbelt Fit Assessment Components for the ASPECT Manikin

2002-03-04
2002-01-0686
As part of the Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools (ASPECT) program, UMTRI researchers developed a new H-point manikin that is intended to replace the current SAE J826 manikin. The original manikin is used in many automotive applications, including as a platform for a belt-fit test device (BTD). In the current project, components and procedures were developed to measure belt fit using the ASPECT manikin. Contoured lap and torso forms were constructed using anthropometric data from an earlier UMTRI study. Prototype forms were mounted on the ASPECT manikin for testing in a laboratory fixture and in vehicles. The testing demonstrated that the ASPECT-BTD produces consistent measures of belt fit that vary in expected ways with belt geometry.
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