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Technical Paper

Electrified Dynamic Skip Fire (eDSF): Design and Benefits

Tula’s Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF®) technology combines highly responsive torque control with cylinder deactivation to optimize fuel consumption of spark ignited engines. Through careful control of individual combustion events, engine operation occurs at peak efficiency over the full range of torque demand. A challenge with skip-fire operation is avoiding objectionable noise and vibration. Tula’s DSF technology uses sophisticated firing control algorithms which manage the skip-fire sequence to avoid excitation of the powertrain and vehicle at sensitive frequencies. DSF enables a production-quality driving experience while reducing CO2 emissions by 8-15% with no impact on regulated toxic emissions. Moreover, DSF presents a high value solution for meeting global emissions mandates, with estimated cost less than $40 per percent gain in fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
Technical Paper

Port Injection of Water into a DI Hydrogen Engine

Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Direct In-cylinder Injection of Water into a PI Hydrogen Engine

Injecting liquid water into a fuel/air charge is a means to reduce NOx emissions. Such strategies are particularly important to hydrogen internal combustion engines, as engine performance (e.g., maximum load) can be limited by regulatory limits on NOx. Experiments were conducted in this study to quantify the effects of direct injection of water into the combustion chamber of a port-fueled, hydrogen IC engine. The effects of DI water injection on NOx emissions, load, and engine efficiency were determined for a broad range of water injection timing. The amount of water injected was varied, and the results were compared with baseline data where no water injection was used. Water injection was a very effective means to reduce NOx emissions. Direct injection of water into the cylinder reduced NOx emissions by 95% with an 8% fuel consumption penalty, and NOx emissions were reduced by 85% without any fuel consumption penalty.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Gains through Dynamic-Skip-Fire in Spark Ignition Engines

Pumping losses are one of the primary energy losses in throttled spark ignition engines. In order to reduce fuel consumption, engine manufacturers are incorporating devices that deactivate the valve-train in some cylinders. In the operating strategies currently implemented in the market, fixed sets of cylinders are deactivated, allowing 2 or 3 operating modes. In contrast, Tula Technology has developed Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF), in which the decision of whether or not to fire a cylinder is decided on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Testing the DSF technology in an independent certified lab on a 2010 GMC Denali, reduces the fuel consumption by 18% on a cycle-average basis, and simultaneously increases the ability to mitigate noise and vibration at objectionable frequencies.
Journal Article

Method to Compensate Fueling for Individual Firing Events in a Four-Cylinder Engine Operated with Dynamic Skip Fire

Cylinder deactivation in multicylinder spark-ignition (SI) engines leads to increased fuel efficiency at part load by allowing fired cylinders to operate closer to their peak thermal efficiency compared to all-cylinder operation. Unlike traditional cylinder deactivation strategies that are limited to deactivating only certain cylinders, Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) is an advanced cylinder deactivation control strategy that makes deactivation decisions for every cylinder on an individual firing opportunity basis to best meet driver torque demand while saving fuel and mitigating noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH). During DSF operation, inducted charge air mass can vary for each firing event due to the firing sequence history. To maximize efficiency, cylinder fueling should be adjusted for each firing event in DSF based on the inducted charge air mass for that event.
Technical Paper

mDSF: Improved Fuel Efficiency, Drivability and Vibrations via Dynamic Skip Fire and Miller Cycle Synergies

mDSF is a novel cylinder deactivation technology developed at Tula Technology, which combines the torque control of Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) with Miller cycle engines to optimize fuel efficiency at minimal cost. mDSF employs a valvetrain with variable valve lift plus deactivation and novel control algorithms founded on Tula’s proven DSF technology. This allows cylinders to dynamically alternate among 3 potential states: high-charge fire, low-charge fire, and skip (deactivation). The low-charge fire state is achieved through an aggressive Miller cycle with Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC). The three operating states in mDSF can be used to simultaneously optimize engine efficiency and driveline vibrations. Acceleration performance is retained using the all-cylinder, high-charge firing mode.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Skip Fire Applied to a Diesel Engine for Improved Fuel Consumption and Emissions

Dynamic skip fire (DSF) is an advanced cylinder deactivation technology where the decision to fire or skip a singular cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine is made immediately prior to each firing opportunity. A DSF-equipped engine features the ability to selectively deactivate cylinders on a cylinder event-by-event basis in order to match the requested torque demand at optimum fuel efficiency while maintaining acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) has already shown significant fuel economy improvements for throttled spark-ignition engines. This paper explores the potential benefits of DSF technology in improving fuel economy while maintaining ultra-low tailpipe emissions for light-duty (LD) Diesel powertrains.