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Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Flow and Temperature Distribution in an Experimental Engine: LES Studies and Thermographic Imaging

2010-10-25
2010-01-2237
Temperature stratification plays an important role in HCCI combustion. The onsets of auto-ignition and combustion duration are sensitive to the temperature field in the engine cylinder. Numerical simulations of HCCI engine combustion are affected by the use of wall boundary conditions, especially the temperature condition at the cylinder and piston walls. This paper reports on numerical studies and experiments of the temperature field in an optical experimental engine in motored run conditions aiming at improved understanding of the evolution of temperature stratification in the cylinder. The simulations were based on Large-Eddy-Simulation approach which resolves the unsteady energetic large eddy and large scale swirl and tumble structures. Two dimensional temperature experiments were carried out using laser induced phosphorescence with thermographic phosphors seeded to the gas in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Diesel Piston Bowl Using Phosphor Thermometry

2009-09-13
2009-24-0033
Phosphor thermometry was used during fuel injection in an optical engine with the glass piston of reentrant type. SiO2 coated phosphor particle was used for the gas-phase temperature measurements, which gave much less background signal. The measurements were performed in motored mode, in combustion mode with injection of n-heptane and in non-combustion mode with injection of iso-octane. In the beginning of injection period, the mean temperature of each injection cases was lower than that of the motored case, and temperature of iso-octane injection cases was even lower than that of n-heptane injection cases. This indicates, even if vaporization effect seemed to be the same at both injection cases, the effect of temperature decrease changed due to the chemical reaction effect for the n-heptane cases. Chemical reaction seems to be initiated outside of the fuel liquid spray and the position was moving towards the fuel rich area as the time proceeds.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Smokeless Spray Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Combined Simultaneous Optical Diagnostics

2009-04-20
2009-01-1353
A heavy duty diesel engine operating case producing no engine-out smoke was studied using combined simultaneous optical diagnostics. The case was close to a typical low load modern diesel operating point without EGR. Parallels were drawn to the conceptual model by Dec and results from high-pressure combustion vessels. Optical results revealed that no soot was present in the upstream part of the jet cross-section. Soot was only observed in the recirculation zones close to the bowl perimeter. This indicated very slow soot formation and was explained by a significantly higher air entrainment rate than in Dec's study. The local fuel-air equivalence ratio, Φ, at the lift-off length was estimated to be 40% of the value in Dec's study. The lower Φ in the jet produced a different Φ -T-history, explaining the soot results. The increased air entrainment rate was mainly due to smaller nozzle holes and increased TDC density.
Technical Paper

Study of Fuel Stratification on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Ethanol Using High Speed Fuel PLIF

2008-10-06
2008-01-2401
An engine can be run in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode by applying a negative valve overlap, thus trapping hot residuals so as to achieve an auto-ignition temperature. By employing spark assistance, the engine can be operated in what is here called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) with ethanol as fuel. The influence of fuel stratification by means of port fuel injection as well as in combination with direct injection was investigated. A high-speed multi-YAG laser system and a framing camera were utilized to capture planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of the fuel distribution. The charge homogeneity in terms of fuel distribution was evaluated using a homogeneity index calculated from the PLIF images. The homogeneity index showed a higher stratification for increased proportions of direct-injected fuel. It was found that charge stratification could be achieved through port fuel injection in a swirling combustion system.
Technical Paper

Optical study on combustion transition from HCCI to PPC with gasoline compression ignition in a HD engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0768
The partially premixed combustion (PPC) concept has shown high efficiency with low soot emissions. However, the in-cylinder phenomena are still to be explained and evaluated for further progress in the research. This work studies the start of combustion process during a transition from homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to PPC. The process is visualized using a heavy-duty, non-swirling engine modified for optical access. High speed video was used to capture the natural luminosity of the combustion. The fuel used was PRF87. Single and double injection strategies were used at a load kept to the moderate level of 7.5 bar IMEPg. Single injections were swept from early HCCI to retarded PPC conditions whilst running a cycle to cycle temperature sweep, to capture the effect of injection timing and temperature differences simultaneously. Results show that retarded injections show less cycle-to-cycle variation due to temperature variations.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry Measurement of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in a Light Duty Engine for Different Injection Strategies

2015-09-06
2015-24-2454
It has been proven that partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the capability of high combustion efficiency with low soot and NOx emissions, which meet the requirements of increasingly restricted emission regulations. In order to obtain more homogenous combustion and longer ignition delay in PPC, different fuel injection strategies were employed which could affect the fuel air mixing and control the combustion. In the present work, a light duty optical diesel engine was used to conduct high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) for single, double and triple injections with different timings. A quartz piston and a cylinder liner were installed in the Bowditch configuration to enable optical access. The geometry of the quartz piston crown is based on the standard diesel combustion chamber design for this commercial passenger car engine, including a re-entrant bowl shape.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Strategies on Fluid Flow and Turbulence in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in a Light Duty Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2455
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. With gasoline fuels, PPC has the advantage of a longer premixed duration of the fuel/air mixture, which prevents soot formation. In addition, the overall combustion stability can be increased with a longer ignition delay, providing proper fuel injection strategies. In this work, the effects of multiple injections on the generation of in-cylinder turbulence at a single swirl ratio are investigated. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) is conducted in an optical direct-injection (DI) engine to obtain the turbulence structure during fired conditions. Primary reference fuel (PRF) 70 (30% n-heptane and 70% iso-octane) is used as the PPC fuel. In order to maintain the in-cylinder flow as similarly as possible to the flow that would exist in a production engine, the quartz piston retains a realistic bowl geometry.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Lift-Off Lengths Obtained by Simultaneous OH-LIF and OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2418
The presence of OH radicals as a marker of the high temperature reaction region usually has been used to determine the lift-off length (LOL) in diesel engines. Both OH Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence diagnostics have been widely used in optical engines for measuring the LOL. OH* chemiluminescence is radiation from OH being formed in the exited states (OH*). As a consequence OH* chemiluminescence imaging provides line-of-sight information across the imaged volume. In contrast, OH-LIF provides information on the distribution of radicals present in the energy ground state. The OH-LIF images only show OH distribution in the thin cross-section illuminated by the laser. When both these techniques have been applied in earlier work, it has often been reported that the chemiluminescence measurements result in shorter lift-off lengths than the LIF approach.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Laser-Extinction and Natural Luminosity Measurements for Soot Probing in Diesel Optical Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2159
Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
Technical Paper

Optical Study of Fuel Spray Penetration and Initial Combustion Location under PPC Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0752
Low temperature combustion modes, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), have been researched over recent decades since the concepts show promise for high efficiency and low emissions compared to conventional diesel combustion. PPC is an intermediate combustion type ranging from HCCI-like combustion to diesel-like combustion. The purpose of this paper is to study optically how the combustion and ignition are affected by different start of injection (SOI) timings. The study is carried out in an optically accessible heavy-duty single-cylinder engine with swirl. The intake pressure was kept constant while the intake temperature was varied to keep the combustion phasing (CA50) constant at ∼3 CAD atdc during an SOI sweep. The fuel used is a mix of primary reference fuels with octane number 81. To determine where the combustion starts, high-speed combustion imaging is used to detect the natural luminosity.
Technical Paper

Effects of Post-Injections Strategies on UHC and CO at Gasoline PPC Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Optical Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0753
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown potential in terms of high efficiency with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot. Despite these benefits, emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are the main shortcomings of the concept. These are caused, among other things, by overlean zones near the injector tip and injector dribble. Previous diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) research has demonstrated post injections to be an effective strategy to mitigate these emissions. The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of post injections on CO and UHC emissions in a quiescent (non-swirling) combustion system. A blend of primary reference fuels, PRF87, having properties similar to US pump gasoline was used at PPC conditions in a heavy duty optical engine. The start of the main injection was maintained constant. Dwell and mass repartition between the main and post injections were varied to evaluate their effect.
Technical Paper

Lift-Off Lengths in an Optical Heavy-Duty Engine Operated at High Load with Low and High Octane Number Fuels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0245
The influence of the ignition quality of diesel-and gasoline-like fuels on the lift-off length of the jet were investigated in an optical heavy duty engine. The engine was operated at a load of 22 bar IMEPg and 1200 rpm. A production type injector with standard holes were used. The lift-off length was recorded with high speed video Different injection pressures and inlet temperatures were used to affect conditions that consequently affect the lift-off length. No matter which fuel used nor injection pressure or inlet temperature, all lift-off lengths showed equal or close to equal lift-off length when stabilized. The higher octane fuel had a longer ignition delay and therefore the fuel penetrate the combustion chamber before auto ignition. This gave a longer lift-off length at the initial stage of combustion before reaching the same stabilized lift-off length. These results indicate that the hot combustion gases are a dominant factor to the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine With Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber

2005-09-11
2005-24-008
Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a high-speed diesel engine. N-heptane and isooctane were used as fuel and toluene was used as a tracer. This arrangement made it possible to make simultaneous measurements of toluene by exciting at 266 nm and detecting at 270-320 nm while exciting formaldehyde at 355 nm and detecting at 400-500 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate how traditional fuel tracer and natural-occurring formaldehyde formed in the cool chemistry are transported in the piston bowl. A range of ignition delays were created by running the engine with different amounts of EGR. During this sweep the area where the low-temperature reactions take place were studied. The measurements were performed in a 0.5-l, single-cylinder optical engine running under conditions simulating a cruise-point, i.e., about 2.2 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Temperature Measurements in Engine Combustion Using Phosphor Thermometry

2007-07-23
2007-01-1883
A phosphor thermometry, for measurements of two-dimensional gas-phase temperature was examined in turbulent combustion in an engine. The reasonable temperature deviation and the agreement with calculated data within 5% precision were achieved by single-shot images in the ignition process of compression ignition engine. Focusing on the local flame kernel, the flame structure could be quantitatively given by the temperature. It became evident that the HCCI flame kernels had 1-3 mm diameter and the isolated island structures. Subsequently, the HTR zone consisted of the combined flame kernels near TDC.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Process by Chemiluminescence Imaging

1999-10-25
1999-01-3680
An experimental study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process has been conducted by using chemiluminescence imaging. The major intent was to characterize the flame structure and its transient behavior. To achieve this, time resolved images of the naturally emitted light were taken. Emitted light was studied by recording its spectral content and applying different filters to isolate species like OH and CH. Imaging was enabled by a truck-sized engine modified for optical access. An intensified digital camera was used for the imaging. Some imaging was done using a streak-camera, capable of taking eight arbitrarily spaced pictures during a single cycle, thus visualizing the progress of the combustion process. All imaging was done with similar operating conditions and a mixture of n-heptane and iso-octane was used as fuel. Some 20 crank angles before Top Dead Center (TDC), cool flames were found to exist.
Technical Paper

Cycle Resolved Wall Temperature Measurements Using Laser-Induced Phosphorescence in an HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3870
Cycle resolved wall temperature measurements have been performed in a one cylinder port injected optical Scania D12 truck engine run in HCCI mode. Point measurements at various locations were made using Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (LIP). Single point measurements with thermographic phosphors utilize the temperature dependancy of the phosphorescence decay time. The phosphorescence peak at 538 nm from the thermographic phosphor La2O2S:Eu was used to determine temperature. A frequency tripled 10 Hz pulsed Nd:YAG laser delivering ultra violet (UV) radiation at 355 nm was used for excitation of the phosphor. Detection in the spectral region 535 - 545 nm was performed every cycle with a photo multiplier tube connected to a 3 GHz oscilloscope. Measurements were made at four points on the cylinder head surface and two points on the outlet and inlet valves respectively. For each location measurements were made at different loads and at different crank angle degrees (CAD).
Technical Paper

Simultaneous PLIF Measurements for Visualization of Formaldehyde- and Fuel- Distributions in a DI HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3869
Simultaneous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a direct-injection HCCI engine. A mix of N-heptane and iso-octane was used as fuel and Toluene as fluorescent tracer. The experimental setup involves two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers and two ICCD cameras. Frequency quadrupled laser radiation at 266 nm from one of the Nd:YAG lasers was used for excitation of the fuel tracer. The resulting fluorescence was detected with one of the ICCD cameras in the spectral region 270-320 nm. The second laser system provided frequency tripled radiation at 355 nm for excitation of Formaldehyde. Detection in the range 395-500 nm was achieved with the second ICCD. The aim of the presented work is to investigate the applicability of utilizing formaldehyde as a naturally occurring fuel marker. Formaldehyde is formed in the low temperature reactions (LTR) prior to the main combustion and should thus be present were fuel is located until it is consumed.
Technical Paper

Formaldehyde and Hydroxyl Radicals in an HCCI Engine - Calculations and LIF-Measurements

2007-01-23
2007-01-0049
Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals and formaldehyde were calculated using homogeneous (HRM) and stochastic reactor models (SRM), and the result was compared to LIF-measurements from an optically accessed iso-octane / n-heptane fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The comparison was at first conducted from averaged total concentrations / signal strengths over the entire combustion volume, which showed a good qualitative agreement between experiments and calculations. Time- and the calculation inlet temperature resolved concentrations of formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals obtained through HRM are presented. Probability density plots (PDPs) through SRM calculations and LIF-measurements are presented and compared, showing a very good agreement considering their delicate and sensitive nature.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous OH- and Formaldehyde-LIF Measurements in an HCCI Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3218
Simultaneous OH- and formaldehyde LIF measurements have been performed in an HCCI engine using two laser sources working on 283 and 355 nm, respectively. Two ICCD camera systems, equipped with long-pass filters, were used to collect the LIF signals. The simultaneous images of OH and formaldehyde were compared with heat-release calculated from the pressure-trace matching the cycle for the LIF measurements. The measurements were performed on a 0.5 l single-cylinder optical engine equipped with port-fuel injection system. A blend of iso-octane and n-heptane was used as fuel and the compression ratio was set to 12:1. The width of the laser sheet was 40 mm and hence covered approximately half of the cylinder bore. At some 20 CAD BTDC low temperature reactions is present and formaldehyde is formed. The formaldehyde signal is then rather constant until the main heat-release starts just before TDC, where the signal decreases rapidly to low values.
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