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Technical Paper

Reaction Kinetics Calculations and Modeling of the Laminar Flame Speeds of Gasoline Fuels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0857
In the quasi-dimensional modeling of the spark-ignition combustion process, the burn rate calculation depends, among other influences, on the laminar flame speed. Commonly used models of laminar flame speeds are usually developed on the basis of measurement data limited to boundary conditions outside of the engine operation range. This limitation is caused by flame instabilities and forces flame speed models to be extrapolated for the application in combustion process simulation. However, for the investigation of, for example, lean burn engine concepts, reliable flame speed values are needed to improve the quality and predictive ability of burn rate models. For this purpose, a reference fuel for gasoline is defined to perform reaction kinetics calculations of laminar flame speeds for a wide range of boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Optimization of Race Engines Through an Extended Quasi Steady State Lap Time Simulation Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0587
Minimizing the lap time for a given race track is the main target in racecar development. In order to achieve the highest possible performance of the vehicle configuration the mutual interaction at the level of assemblies and components requires a balance between the advantages and disadvantages for each design decision. Especially the major shift in the focus of racecar powerunit development to high efficiency powertrains is driving a development of lean boosted and rightsized engines. In terms of dynamic engine behavior the time delay from requested to provided torque could influence the lap time performance. Therefore, solely maximizing the full load behavior objective is insufficient to achieve minimal lap time. By means of continuous predictive virtual methods throughout the whole development process, the influence on lap time by dynamic power lags, e.g. caused by the boost system, can be recognized efficiently even in the early concept phase.
Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Knock Model for the Development of Future SI Engine Concepts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0855
At specific operating conditions, the auto-ignition in the unburnt mixture that precedes the occurrence of knock in conventional SI engines happens in two stages. In a previous publication, the authors demonstrated that the low-temperature heat release significantly influences the auto-ignition behavior of the mixture, thus severely impairing the prediction capabilities of the Livengood-Wu integral that the majority of the commonly used 0D/1D knock models are based on. Consequently, a new two-stage auto-ignition prediction approach for modeling the progress of the chemical reactions was introduced. It was demonstrated that the proposed auto-ignition model predicts the occurrence of two-stage ignition and accurately considers the significant influence of low-temperature heat release on the mixture’s auto-ignition behavior at various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Simulative Study for Post Oxidation During Scavenging on Turbo Charged SI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0853
Fulfilling exhaust emissions regulations and meet customer performance needs mainly drive the current engine development. Turbocharging system plays a key role for that. Currently turbocharging should provide highest engine power density at high engine speed by also allowing a very responsive performance at low end. This represents a trade-off in turbocharger development. A large scaled turbine allows having moderate exhaust gas back pressure for peak power region, but leading to loss of torque in low engine speed. In the last years of engine development scavenging helped to get away a bit from this trade-off as it increases the turbine mass flow and also reduces cylinder internal residual gas at low engine speed. The mostly in-use lean strategy runs air fuel ratios of closed to stoichiometric mixture in cylinder and global (pre catalyst) of λ = 1.05 to l = 1.3. This will be out of the narrow air fuel ratio band of λ = 1 to ensure NOx conversion in the 3-way-catalyst.
Technical Paper

Methodical Selection of Sustainable Fuels for High Performance Racing Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1749
As the importance of sustainability increases and dominates the powertrain development within the automotive sector, this issue has to be addressed in motorsports as well. The development of sustainable high-performance fuels defined for the use in motorsports offers technical and environmental potential with the possibility to increase the sustainability of motorsports at the same or even a better performance level. At the moment race cars are predominantly powered by fossil fuels. However due to the emerging shift regarding the focus of the regulations towards high efficient powertrains during the last years the further development of the used fuels gained in importance. Moreover during the last decades a huge variety of sustainable fuels emerged that offer a range of different characteristics and that are produced based on waste materials or carbon dioxide.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Pressure Trace Analysis for Gasoline Engines with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

2010-10-25
2010-01-2182
Regarding further development of gasoline engines several new technologies are investigated in order to diminish pollutant emissions and particularly fuel consumption. The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) seems to be a promising way to reach these targets. Therefore, in the past years there had been a lot of experimental efforts in this field of combustion system engineering. Negative valve overlap with pilot injection before pumping top dead center (PTDC) and an “intermediate” compression and combustion during PTDC, followed by the main injection after PTDC, is one way to realize and to proper control a HCCI operation. For conventional CI and SI combustion the pressure trace analysis (PTA) is a powerful and widely used tool to analyse, understand and optimize the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a CNG Driven SI Engine Within a Parallel Hybrid Power Train by Using EGR and an Oversized Turbocharger with Active-WG Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0820
The hybrid power train technology offers various prospects to optimize the engine efficiency in order to minimize the CO₂ emissions of an internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle. Today different types of hybrid architectures like parallel, serial, power split or through-the-road concepts are commonly known. To achieve lowest fuel consumption the following hybrid electric vehicle drive modes can be used: Start/Stop, pure electric/thermal driving, recuperation of brake energy and the hybrid mode. The high complexity of the interaction between those power sources requires an extensive investigation to determine the optimal configuration of a natural-gas-powered SI engine within a parallel hybrid power train. Therefore, a turbocharged 1.0-liter 3-cylinder CNG engine was analyzed on the test bench. Using an optimized combustion strategy, the engine was operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio applying both high- and low-pressure EGR.
Technical Paper

Quasi-dimensional and Empirical Modeling of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0151
Two combustion models are presented: A quasi-dimensional approach, based on the injection shape and an empirical model. Both models have computation times of less than one second per cycle. The quasi-dimensional approach for CI combustion discretizes the injection jet in slices. Pilot-injections are modeled as separate zones. The forecast capability and the limitations of the model are discussed on the basis of measurements. Mentioned above the base of the quasi-dimensional model is the injection rate. Often it is difficult to obtain these data. There is therefore another empirical approach for combustion, which does not need the injection rate as input. Both models have to be calibrated. This can be done by an automatic calibration tool on the basis of the advanced Powell method. The differences and advantages compared with other optimization methods are shown. Emission-simulation models are highly important in simulating CI engines.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Post-Oxidation in Turbo Charged SI-DI-Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0373
Turbocharged SI-DI-engines in combination with a reduction of engine displacement (“Downsizing”) offer the possibility to remarkably reduce the overall fuel consumption. In charged mode it is possible to scavenge fresh unburnt air into the exhaust system if a positive slope during the overlap phase of the gas exchange occurs. The matching of the turbo system in SI-engines always causes a trade-off between low-end torque and high power output. The higher mass flow at low engine speeds of an engine using scavenging allows a partial solution of this trade-off. Thus, higher downsizing grades and fuel consumption reduction potential can be obtained. Through scavenging the global fuel to air ratio deviates from the local in-cylinder fuel to air ratio. It is possible to use a rich in-cylinder fuel to air ratio, whereas the global fuel to air ratio remains stochiometrical. This could be very beneficial to reduce the effect of catalytic aging on the one hand and engine knock on the other hand.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a High-Performance CNG-Engine Based on an innovative Virtual Development Process

2011-09-11
2011-24-0140
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Global Reaction Model for a Range of Gasolines and Kerosenes under HCCI Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0024
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
Technical Paper

A Novel CFD Approach for an Improved Prediction of Particulate Emissions in GDI Engines by Considering the Spray-Cooling on the Piston

2015-04-14
2015-01-0385
The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions. Nevertheless, in conventional CFD models, the spray cooling cannot be captured because of an assumed constant wall temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fast, Predictive Burn Rate Model for Gasoline-HCCI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0569
Operating gasoline engines at part load in a so-called Gasoline-HCCI (gHCCI) combustion mode has shown promising results in terms of improved efficiency and reduced emissions. So far, research has primarily been focused on experimental investigations on the test bench, whereas fast, predictive burn rate models for use in process calculation have not been available. Such a phenomenological model is henceforth presented. It describes the current burn rate as the sum of a sequential self-ignition process on the one hand and a laminar-turbulent flame propagation on the other hand. The first mechanism is essentially represented by ignition delay calculation, in which the reaction rate is computed separately for some hundred groups of different temperatures based on the Arrhenius equation. Thermal inhomogeneity is described by a contaminated normal distribution which accounts for the influence of wall temperature on mixture close to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions of CI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-1002
This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Gas Exchange (Scavenging) on a Single-Scroll Turbocharged Four Cylinder GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1024
For scavenging the combustion chamber during the gas exchange, a temporary positive pressure gradient between the intake and the exhaust is required. On a single-scroll turbocharged four cylinder engine, the positive pressure gradient is not realized by the spatial separation of the exhaust manifold (twin-scroll), but by the use of suitable short exhaust valve opening times. In order to avoid any influence of the following firing cylinder onto the ongoing scavenging process, the valve opening time has to be shorter than 180 °CA. Such a short valve opening time has both, a strong influence on the gas exchange at the low-end torque and at the maximum engine power. This paper analyzes a phenomenon, which occurs due to short exhaust valve opening durations and late valve timings: A repeated compression of the burned cylinder charge after the bottom dead center, referred to as “recompression” in this paper.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Investigations of High-Performance SI-Engines by Means of 3D-CFD Simulations

2015-09-06
2015-24-2469
Comparative analyses of a high-performance 4-cylinder DISI-engine and its equivalent single-cylinder research engine were performed by means of fast response 3D-CFD simulations. Both engines have identical geometries of intake and exhaust channels, cylinder head and piston. The used 3D-CFD tool QuickSim was developed at the Forschungsinstitut für Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS), particularly for the numerical simulation of internal combustion engines (ICE). A calibration of the air consumption enabled a comparison of in-cylinder processes, including charge motion, mixture formation and combustion. All calculated operating points showed a similar trend. Deviations during the gas exchange phase led to a higher turbulence level and hence combustion velocity for the single-cylinder research engine. This resulted in a slightly higher maximum cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Hybrid Powertrains using Different Combustion Engine Models

2015-09-06
2015-24-2545
This study presents a comparison of different approaches for the simulation of HEV fuel consumption. For this purpose a detailed 1D-CFD model within an HEV drivetrain is compared to a ‘traditional’ map-based combustion engine model as well as different types of simplified engine models which are able to reduce computing time significantly while keeping the model accuracy at a high level. First, a simplified air path model (fast running model) is coupled with a quasi dimensional, predictive combustion model. In a further step of reducing the computation time, an alternative way of modeling the in cylinder processes was evaluated, by replacing the combustion model with a mean value model. For this approach, the most important influencing factors of the 1D-CFD air path model (temperature, pressure, A/F-ratio) are used as input values into neural nets, while the corresponding outputs are in turn used as feedback for the air path model.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Exhaust Gas Turbochargers

2015-09-06
2015-24-2531
Due to the demands for today's passenger cars regarding fuel consumption and emissions, exhaust turbo charging has become a fundamental step in achieving these goals. Especially in upper and middle class vehicles it is also necessary to consider the noise comfort. Today, floating bushings are mainly used as radial bearings in turbochargers. In the conventional operating range of the turbocharger dynamic instability occurs in the lubrication films of the bearings. This instability is transferred by structure-borne noise into audible airborne sound and known as constant tone phenomenon. This phenomenon is not the major contributor of the engine noise but its tonal character is very unpleasant. In order to gain a more detailed understanding about the origin of this phenomenon, displacement sensors have been applied to the compressor- and the turbine-side of the rotor, to be able to determine the displacement path.
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