Refine Your Search


Search Results

Technical Paper

Global Trends in Diesel Emissions Regulation - A 2001 Update

Across the entire globe, there has been tremendous movement toward the further control of diesel vehicle emissions over the past 1 to 2 years. With regard to heavy duty vehicles, the EU in late 1999 finalized requirements for Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5, to be phased in by 2008. These requirements are expected to require the introduction of advanced PM and NOx controls. The US EPA has adopted even more stringent requirements to be introduced in 2007 along with very low sulfur (<15 PPM) diesel fuel. Japan is in the process of an intense review which will likely reduce fuel sulfur levels to at least 50 PPM and introduce substantially tighter PM requirements by 2005. They are also developing a major diesel retrofit program. With regard to light duty vehicles, the California Air Resources Board has established the principle that diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the US EPA followed suit with its Tier 2 program.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control: Accomplishments To Date and Challenges For the New Millennium

Over the course of the past five decades, as the vehicle population around the world has exploded, a great deal has been learned about the implications for the local, regional and global environment. A great deal of effort has been focused on addressing the local and regional problems with some success but continued growth has offset some of these gains. In recent years, global pollution concerns have increased and the motor vehicle contribution has been found to be increasingly important. The thrust of this paper would be a review of the developments to date around the world and a focus on remaining problems such as toxic emissions, global warming and in use emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control - A 1997 Update

At the present time, as the world's vehicle population inches over 700 million, countries around the world are continuing to struggle with their motor vehicle pollution problems. Some countries have made great progress in reducing CO and HC emissions from vehicles, and to a lesser extent NOX, in spite of substantial growth in their vehicle populations. While car standards continue to be pushed, the motor vehicle focus is gradually shifting to heavy duty trucks and buses and off road vehicles and engines. Fuels improvements are also playing an increasingly important role. Finally, concerns with CO2 and other greenhouse gases are getting increased attention. The purpose of this paper will be to provide a broad overview of these developments, highlighting the successes achieved to date and the future challenges.
Technical Paper

Global Trends In Diesel Emissions Control - A 1998 Update

Two opposing trends with significant implications for the future growth of diesel vehicles and engines are taking place -an increased focus on small particles and ozone levels as serious causes of adverse effects on health and the environment and concerns regarding global warming and the need to lower carbon dioxide emissions. The purpose of this paper is to summarize developments with regard to both of these areas and to highlight the emerging concerns with the number and size of so called ultrafine particles and high in use NOX emissions from US heavy duty trucks.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Diesel Emissions Control - A 1997 Update

Driven in part by concerns regarding global warming, there is a clear trend toward increased sales of light duty diesel vehicles in many parts of the world. This trend can result in many positive environmental benefits including low fuel consumption, and therefore low levels of CO2, low levels of exhaust CO and HC (especially during cold start conditions), and very low levels of evaporative hydrocarbons. However, increased diesel sales have a downside, relatively high NOx and particulate emissions. These pollutants continue to receive high priority attention in most areas of the world. As a result, countries around the world are increasingly tightening diesel regulations with the result that technology for reducing emissions continues to advance. Engine and combustion improvements have substantially reduced NOx and particulate from modern engines.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Developments in Motor Vehicle Diesel Particulate Control

The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize recent trends around the world regarding diesel vehicles, the health effects associated with diesel particulate, and the actions taken by governments to reduce these emissions. Further, the paper will summarize manufacturer efforts to develop control technologies for diesel particulate.
Technical Paper

Global Progress and Problems in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control

Over the past century, huge amounts of air pollutants and gases have been released into the atmosphere that now pose risks to human health, natural ecosystems, and the earth's climate. Motor vehicles are a major contributor to both the build-up of greenhouse gases -- potentially the most serious of these problems -- and the creation of urban smog and acid rain. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the nature of these problems and the role played by motor vehicles in causing them. The significance of pollutants other than CO2 which are emitted in large quantities from vehicles will be shown to be important for global warming. Further, the increasing significance of vehicles produced or registered in rapidly expanding countries will be assessed. Finally, the growing importance of vehicle modes other than passenger cars will be summarized.
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicle Pollution Control in Asia: The Lessons of Europe

Areas of rapid Industrialization in Asia are now starting to experience unacceptable air quality or are projecting that they will in the relatively near future as a result of rapid growth in their vehicle populations. In addressing these problems, there is much that can be learned from the experience and mistakes of the industrialized world. In addition, however, there are some unique problems of developing countries, especially certain of the smaller ones in Asia, which would seem to benefit from special approaches. The purpose of this paper is to briefly survey the adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, to review technologies developed to address these problems, and to summarize the current status around the world. Special focus will be on the development of strategies to address the emerging problems of developing countries in Asia.
Technical Paper

The Role of Alternative Fuels in Reducing Emissions from Mobile Sources in Taiwan R.O.C.

Urban areas in Taiwan frequently experience unhealthy levels of particulate, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, formed in 1987, has begun an aggressive program to improve air quality by addressing all major sources of air pollution. Mobile emissions sources are responsible for over 90 percent of CO, NOx, and HC emissions in the Taipei area. New emissions standards for light-duty vehicles and motorcycles took effect in 1990 and 1991, respectively; these standards are expected to significantly reduce emissions from these vehicle classes as the new models are phased into the vehicle population. However, additional reductions may be needed in Taipei and other urban areas. Alternative fuels-including liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, methanol, ethanol, and electricity-represent a promising strategy for achieving these reductions. Vehicle technology for these fuels is being developed rapidly throughout the world.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Diesel Particulate Control, 1993 Update

As the diesel population continues to grow in various parts of the world, and as concerns regarding diesel particulate effects on public health and the environment increase, more and more countries are adopting tighter and tighter standards. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of such regulation around the world.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Strategy for the 1990's and Beyond Part I: Light Duty Vehicles

While great progress has been made over the past two decades in controlling emissions from motor vehicles, serious problems remain. Substantial growth in vehicles and poorer than expected in use performance have partially offset reductions achieved. While future gains must continue to take advantage of technological and fuel advances, special attention must be paid to in-use emissions and vehicle growth.
Technical Paper

The I/M Success Story: Where Do We Go from Here?

Inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs have increased substantially in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977. Experience has indicated that they can achieve significant reductions in both hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. This paper reviews the experience with existing programs in the US and suggests items which should be improved to increase overall I/M benefits. In addition, it explores the potential expansion of I/M to reduce NOx and diesel particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Developments in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control - A 1987 Overview

Most of the major industrialized areas of the world have been experiencing serious motor vehicle pollution problems over the last decade. The motor vehicle pollution control programs which have have been developed to deal with the effects have led to tremendous advances in gasoline car control technologies. Similar technologies are under intensive development for diesel cars and trucks. Several developing countries are now experiencing similar air pollution problems. This paper surveys the most recent data regarding adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, reviews technologies developed to address these problems, and summarizes the current status around the world.
Technical Paper

The Internationalization of Vehicle Emissions Control Regulation

Emission control legislation has been adopted by many countries around the world. Increasingly, countries are choosing “environmentally friendly” motor vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the basis for environmental concern with motor vehicles, to summarize the status of control programs and to assess the advantages of harmonizing the individual pollution control programs which are being developed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Control Around the World

Worldwide concerns with global climate change and reducing oil consumption have increased interest in expanding the global light duty diesel penetration, adding to the already dominant role of diesels in commercial vehicles. The major impediment has been concern over the adverse health effects associated with diesel exhaust. This paper will review the status of these concerns, summarizing recent studies conducted by the World Health Organization, the US EPA and the California Air Resources Board. In response to these concerns, various countries have adopted controls on both diesel vehicles and engines and their fuels. The current status of these efforts as well as the state of control technology will be summarized.
Technical Paper

Global Warming - the Implications for Motor Vehicle Pollution Control and Energy Conservation in the Asia - Pacific Region

Motor vehicles already play a significant role in the climate modification problem and have the potential to play an even greater role in the future. The vast majority of the world's vehicles are concentrated in the highly industrialized areas of Western Europe and North America, but an increasing proportion are being produced in the Asia Pacific region and a large and growing proportion of them remain in that area. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the environmental implications of the current vehicle fleet and its likely future directions. An overall policy will be proposed to address both local and global environmental concerns
Technical Paper

The Benefits and Costs of Diesel Particulate Control V Methanol Fuel for the In-Use Urban Bus

This is the latest in a series of papers on the subject of the costs and benefits of diesel particulate control. The initial focus was on new light duty vehicles with a gradual shift to heavy trucks and in-use urban buses. This latest study continues to focus on in-use urban buses with particular emphasis on the costs and benefits of converting these vehicles to methanol rather than diesel fuel. It concludes that conversion to methanol has the potential to bring about enormous reductions in particulate and is very cost beneficial.
Technical Paper

Global Warming: The Implication for Alternative Fuel

This paper will review the potential need for and environmental gains from the use of alternative fuels in vehicles to address urban air pollution. Then the global warming problem and the role of motor vehicles presently and in the future will be assessed. Finally, the positive and negative consequences of alternative fuels from this perspective will be analyzed. In summary, this paper will show that while there are potentially significant concerns, if appropriate government policies are adopted alternative fuels have the potential to substantially improve both local and global environmental problems and should be a key element of both strategies.
Technical Paper

Benefits and Costs of Light Duty Diesel Particulate Control

This study builds upon the National Academy of Sciences study in the rapidly changing area of diesel particulate cost-benefit analysis and updates it where appropriate based on new data or analysis. It does not generate new information but merely reviews and analyzes existing data. The body of the paper a) explains the basis for estimating the various costs, b) describes a computer model to relate the costs to the benefits, and c) presents the results of the analysis.