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Technical Paper

Equivalent System Mass of Producing Yeast and Flat Breads from Wheat Berries, A Comparison of Mill Type

Wheat is a candidate crop for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) system, and cereal grains and their products will be included on long-term space missions beyond low earth orbit. While the exact supply scenario has yet to be determined, some type of post-processing of these grains must occur if they are shipped as bulk ingredients or grown on site for use in foods. Understanding the requirements for processing grains in space is essential for incorporating the process into the ALS food system. The ESM metric developed by NASA describes and compares individual system impact on a closed system in terms of a single parameter, mass. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of grain mill type on the ESM of producing yeast and flat breads. Hard red spring wheat berries were ground using a Brabender Quadrumat Jr. or the Kitchen-Aid grain mill attachment (both are proposed post-harvest technologies for the ALS system) to produce white and whole wheat flour, respectively.
Technical Paper

Shelf Life Determination of Thermally Processed Foods

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. For these long duration missions, a shelf life of 3 – 5 years for the prepackaged transit food system is required. Of the preservation methods currently being used for NASA flight food, the thermostabilized items have the longest shelf life and could be used on longer duration space missions. Currently four approved International Space Station thermostabilized packaged foods are undergoing accelerated shelf life testing at NASA/Johnson Space Center. Bread pudding was produced in the summer of 2001 and carrot coins, tuna noodle casserole, and apricot cobbler were produced for shelf life testing in the summer of 2002.