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Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Material Constitutive Parameters in Sheet Metal Forming Simulations

1998-09-29
982300
Material constitutive modeling is an important aspect in the continuous improvement process for sheet metal forming simulation and analysis. In this study, a sensitivity study of material constitutive parameters on forming simulation results is carried out for two different sheet metal parts. Three different yield criteria are evaluated in the simulation including isotropic yield criterion, Hill's 1948 anisotropic yield criterion and Barlat's non-quadratic anisotropic yield criterion. It is found that the forming results depend upon the yield criterion used in the simulation. Both thinning and stress in the formed part are very sensitive to the change in anisotropy value (r-value). Effects of strain rate sensitivity of a material on forming results are demostrated through the use of two different stress and strain data from different tensile speeds. It is also found that forming results such as thinning are very sensitive to the strain hardening behavior of the material.
Technical Paper

Strain Hardening and Forming Limits of Automotive Steels

1995-02-01
950700
The formability window of a material depends upon the forming limit and its strain distribution ability. For two materials with the same forming limit, the formability performance is governed by their strain distribution ability. In this study, strain hardening behavior of different strength steels was investigated using a uniaxial tension test and the forming limit was studied using both Marciniak cup and dome tests. The n-value of steels varies with strain. Different strain hardening behaviors are found between mild steels and high strength steels. Strain distribution ability of steels increases with the increase in the overall n-value. The peak n-value at a low strain level enhances the strain distribution ability of the steel. It has been shown from both theoretical and experimental studies that a constant thickness strain line exists on the left side of the forming limit curve.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Interface Friction in Different Forming Models for Coated Steel Sheets

1992-02-01
920633
Interface friction between sheet metal and tooling in sheet metal forming is examined in different forming modes using laboratory simulative tests. Stretchability is studied by the limiting dome height test; drawability is investigated by a four inch Swift cup draw test and the coefficient of friction is measured by the draw bead simulator under bending and unbending deformation. The responses of the interface friction in six different coated and uncoated steel sheets are studied using seven different lubricants. It is found that the interface friction between sheet metal and tooling is very sensitive to the forming mode and the type of coating. For the same lubricant and coated material, two different forming modes may produce very different results in interface friction. However, overall good and bad lubricants for all forming modes can be determined for a given coated material using these three tests.
Technical Paper

Development of Shear Fracture Criterion for Dual-Phase Steel Stamping

2009-04-20
2009-01-1172
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
Technical Paper

The Prestrain Effect on the Sheared Edge Flangeability of Dual Phase 780 Steels

2012-04-16
2012-01-0533
Edge flanging represents one of the forming modes employed in multistage forming, and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are more prone to edge cracking during sheared edge flanging than the conventional high strength steels (HSS) and mild steels. The performance of the sheared edge in flanging operation depends on the remaining ductility of the material in the sheared edge after the work hardening (WH) and damage produced by blanking and subsequent forming operations. Therefore, it is important to analyze the effect of work hardening produced by blanking and subsequent forming operations prior to edge flanging on the edge flanging performance. In this study, the effect of different forming operation sequences prior to edge flanging on the edge flanging performance was analyzed for a dual phase 780 steel.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Response of HSLA and Dual Phase Sheet Steel in Dynamic Crush

2001-10-16
2001-01-3101
Continuing pressure to reduce mass and cost of vehicles is driving the development of new high strength steel products with improved combinations of strength and formability. Galvanized, cold rolled dual phase steel products are new alternatives to conventional high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel for strength limited applications in vehicles. These steels have higher tensile strengths than HSLA products with nearly equivalent formability. This paper compares the performance of HSLA and dual phase sheet steel products in a series of drop tower tests. Samples were prepared by stamping the steel sheets into typical rail-type parts using a production-intent die process. The parts were sectioned, and subsequently fabricated into hat-shaped assemblies that were then dynamically crushed by a drop weight. The experiments were designed such that the entire energy input by the drop weight was absorbed by the samples.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Effects of Frame Trigger Hole Location on Crash Behavior

2005-04-11
2005-01-0702
The front rail plays a very important role in vehicle crash. Trigger holes are commonly used to control frame crush mode due to their simple manufacturing process and flexibility for late changes in the product development phase. Therefore, a study, including CAE and testing, was conducted on a production front rail to understand the effects of trigger hole shape, size and orientation. The trigger hole location in the front rail also affects crash performance. Therefore, the effect of trigger hole location on front rail crash behavior was studied, and understanding these effects is the main objective of this study. A tapered front rail produced from 1.7 mm thick DP600 steel was used for the trigger hole location investigation. Front rails with different trigger spacing and sizes were tested using VIA sled test facility and the crash progress was simulated using a commercial code RADIOSS. The strain rate, welding and forming effects were incorporated in the front rail modeling.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Test for Springback: Experimental Procedures and Results of a Slit-Ring Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-0083
Experimental procedures and results of a benchmark test for springback are reported and a complete suite of obtained data is provided for the validation of forming and springback simulation software. The test is usually referred as the Slit-Ring test where a cylindrical cup is first formed by deep drawing and then a ring is cut from the mid-section of the cup. The opening of the ring upon slitting releases the residual stresses in the formed cup and provides a valuable set of easy-to-measure, easy-to-characterize springback data. The test represents a realistic deep draw stamping operation with stretching and bending deformation, and is highly repeatable in a laboratory environment. In this study, six different automotive materials are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Formability Issues in the Application of Tailor Welded Blank Sheets

1993-03-01
930278
The use of tailor welded blank sheets for body-in-white applications has brought many new forming challenges. Mechanical properties of tailor welded blanks measured from the tension test showed significantly higher strengths and lower elongations than in the base metal. The forming limit of tailor welded blanks was significantly reduced when compared to that in the base metal. For the weld made from materials with dissimilar thicknesses/strengths, additional formability issues were also raised in addition to those for the weld made from materials with similar thickness/strength. These issues increase the potential for failure in the lesser thickness/lower strength material in the area immediately adjacent to the weld when the difference in thicknesses or strengths of the two materials increases.
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