Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 9 of 9
Technical Paper

Slung Load Divergence Speed Predictions for Vehicle Shapes

2015-09-15
2015-01-2570
Loads slung under aircraft can go into divergent oscillations coupling multiple degrees of freedom. Predicting the highest safe flight speed for a vehicle-load combination is a critical challenge, both for military missions over hostile areas, and for evacuation/rescue operations. The primary difficulty was that of obtaining well-resolved airload maps covering the arbitrary attitudes that a slung load may take. High speed rotorcraft using tilting rotors and co-axial rotors can fly at speeds that imply high dynamic pressure, making aerodynamic loads significant even on very dense loads such as armored vehicles, artillery weapons, and ammunition. The Continuous Rotation method demonstrated in our prior work enables routine prediction of divergence speeds. We build on prior work to explore the prediction of divergence speed for practical configurations such as military vehicles, which often have complex bluff body shapes.
Technical Paper

Narrow-Band Excitation of Vortex Flows

2015-09-15
2015-01-2572
At high angles of attack, the flow over a swept wing generates counter-rotating vortical features. These features can amplify into a nearly sinusoidal fluctuation of velocity components. The result is excitation of twin-fin buffeting, driven at clearly predictable frequencies, or at nearby lock-in frequencies of the fin structure. This is distinct from the traditional model of fin buffeting as a structural resonant response to broadband, large-amplitude excitation from vortex core bursting. Hot-film anemometry was conducted ahead of the vertical fins of a 1:48 scale model of the F-35B aircraft, in the angle of attack range between 18 and 30 degrees. Auto spectral density functions from these data showed a sharp spectral peak in the flow ahead of the fins for angles of attack between 20 and 28 degrees. Small fences placed on the top surface of the wing eliminated the spectral peak, leaving only a broadband turbulent spectrum.
Technical Paper

Yaw Effects on the Narrowband Spectra Above a Delta Wing in Turbulent Flow

2016-09-20
2016-01-2056
Combat aircraft maneuvering at high angles of attack or in landing approach are likely to encounter conditions where the flow over the swept wings is yawed. This paper examines the effect of yaw on the spectra of turbulence above and aft of the wing, in the region where fins and control surfaces are located. Prior work has shown the occurrence of narrowband velocity fluctuations in this region for most combat aircraft models, including those with twin fins. Fin vibration and damage has been traced to excitation by such narrowband fluctuations. The narrowband fluctuations themselves have been traced to the wing surface. The issue in this paper is the effect of yaw on these fluctuations, as well as on the aerodynamic loads on a wing, without including the perturbations due to the airframe.
Technical Paper

Pressure Field Evolution on Rotor Blades at High Advance Ratio

2016-09-20
2016-01-2010
The design of advanced rotorcraft requires knowledge of the flowfield and loads on the rotor blade at extreme advance ratios (ratios of the forward flight speed to rotor tip speed). In this domain, strong vortices form below the rotor, and their evolution has a sharp influence on the aero-dynamics loads experienced by the rotor, particularly the loads experienced at pitch links. To understand the load distribution, the surface pressure distribution must be captured. This has posed a severe problem in wind tunnel experiments. In our experiments, a 2-bladed teetering rotor with collective and cyclic pitch controls is used in a low speed subsonic wind tunnel in reverse flow. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used to measure the three component spatial velocity field. Measurement accuracy is now adequate for velocity data, and can be converted to pressure both at and away from the blade surface.
Technical Paper

Coaxial Rotor Flow Phenomena in Forward Flight

2016-09-20
2016-01-2009
Coaxial rotors are finding use in advanced rotorcraft concepts. Combined with lift offset rotor technology, they offer a solution to the problems of dynamic stall and reverse flow that often limit single rotor forward flight speeds. In addition, coaxial rotorcraft systems do not need a tail rotor, a major boon during operation in confined areas. However, the operation of two counter-rotating rotors in close proximity generates many possible aerodynamic interactions between rotor blades, blades and vortices, and between vortices. With two rotors, the parameter design space is very large, and requires efficient computations as well as basic experiments to explore aerodynamics of a coaxial rotor and the effects on performance, loads, and acoustics.
Technical Paper

Tradeoff Study of High Altitude Solar Reflector Concepts

2017-09-19
2017-01-2143
A direct solution to Global Warming would be to reflect a part of sunlight back into Space. A system tradeoff study is being developed with three of the concepts that are being evaluated as long-endurance high-altitude reflectors. The first concept is a high aspect ratio solar powered flying wing towing reflector sheets. This concept is named “Flying Carpet”. Second is a centrifugally stretched high altitude solar reflector (CSHASR). The CSHASR has 4 rotors made of reflector sheets with a hub stretching to 60 percent of the radius, held together by an ultralight quad-rotor structure. Each rotor is powered by a solar-electric motor. A variation on this concept, forced by nighttime descent rate concerns, is powered by tip-mounted solar panels and propellers with some battery storage augmenting rotational inertia as well as energy storage. The third concept is an Aerostatically Balanced Reflector (ABR) sheet, held up by hydrogen balloons.
Technical Paper

The Flying Carpet: Aerodynamic High-Altitude Solar Reflector Design Study

2017-09-19
2017-01-2026
Our concept studies indicate that a set of reflectors floated in the upper atmosphere can efficiently reduce radiant forcing into the atmosphere. The cost of reducing the radiant forcing sufficiently to reverse the current rate of Global Warming, is well within reach of global financial resources. This paper summarizes the overall concept and focuses on one of the reflector concepts, the Flying Carpet. The basic element of this reflector array is a rigidized reflector sheet towed behind and above a solar-powered, distributed electric-propelled flying wing. The vehicle rises above 30,480 m (100,000 ft) in the daytime by solar power. At night, the very low wing loading of the sheets enables the system to stay well above the controlled airspace ceiling of 18,288 m (60,000 ft). The concept study results are summarized before going into technical issues in implementation. Flag instability is studied in initial wind tunnel experiments.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Fuselage Loads on Rotorcraft in Ground Effect

2005-10-03
2005-01-3153
In ground effect, helicopters experience severe loads that change rapidly with flight condition and ground clearance. Even under nominally steady conditions, wake vortex interactions and vortex recirculation into the rotors cause transient loads separated by apparently random intervals. In prior work, these loads have been isolated and classified into transient versus quasi-steady using flow imaging, hot-wire anemometry and integrated load measurements. This paper looks at wind tunnel experiments studying the fuselage loads on two typical helicopter fuselage shapes decoupled from rotor disk moments. The likely effect of this load variation is outlined in the paper, in an attempt to begin relating these back to the forces reported by pilots.
Journal Article

Time-Varying Loads of Co-Axial Rotor Blade Crossings

2017-09-19
2017-01-2024
The blade crossing event of a coaxial counter-rotating rotor is a potential source of noise and impulsive blade loads. Blade crossings occur many times during each rotor revolution. In previous research by the authors, this phenomenon was analyzed by simulating two airfoils passing each other at specified speeds and vertical separation distances, using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver OVERFLOW. The simulations explored mutual aerodynamic interactions associated with thickness, circulation, and compressibility effects. Results revealed the complex nature of the aerodynamic impulses generated by upper/lower airfoil interactions. In this paper, the coaxial rotor system is simulated using two trains of airfoils, vertically offset, and traveling in opposite directions. The simulation represents multiple blade crossings in a rotor revolution by specifying horizontal distances between each airfoil in the train based on the circumferential distance between blade tips.
X