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Technical Paper

Event-Based Mean-Value Modeling of DI Diesel Engines for Controller Design

Models often use time rather than strokes (crank-angle) as the independent variable to describe engine dynamics despite the fact that the dynamics of an internal combustion engine are intrinsically linked to the combustion events. In this paper, two models are developed in parallel in which not only the independent variable is changed but the notion of mass flows as well: flows are in [g/s] for the time-based model and in [g/st] for the event-based model. Both models are of the same computational complexity and show the same accuracy in validation. The investigation of the model properties shows that variations in the flow-related parameters are reduced by a factor of two to five for the event-based model. However, those of the crankshaft dynamics are increased. It is concluded that the model should be chosen in context of the control system to be designed.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Cyclic NO Formation Model with Fast NO Measurements

Experimental data was obtained from a Rover K4 optical access engine and analyzed with a combustion analysis package. Cyclic NO values were calculated by mass averaging the measurements obtained by a fast NO analyzer. While the mass averaged results were used as the basis of comparison for the model, results indicate that mass averaging a fast NO signal is not nearly as critical as mass averaging a fast FID signal. A computer simulation (ISIS - Integrated Spark Ignition engine Simulation) was used to model the NO formation on a cyclic basis by means of the extended Zeldovich equations. The model achieves its cyclic variability through the input of experimentally derived burn rates and a completeness of combustion parameter, which is based on the Rassweiler and Withrow method of calculating mass fraction burned and is derived from the pressure-crank angle record of the engine.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurement of Cold Start HC Concentration Using the Fast FID

Understanding mixture formation phenomena during the first few cycles of an engine cold start is extremely important for achieving the minimum engine-out emission levels at the time when the catalytic converter is not yet operational. Of special importance is the structure of the charge (film, droplets and vapour) which enters the cylinder during this time interval as well as its concentration profile. However, direct experimental studies of the fuel behaviour in the inlet port have so far been less than fully successful due to the brevity of the process and lack of a suitable experimental technique. We present measurements of the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in the manifold and port of a production SI engine using the Fast Response Flame Ionisation Detector (FRFID).
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of AFR Switch of SI Engines

A novel mechanical method of achieving a rapid switch between stoichiometric and lean conditions for SI engines is explored. Two and three throttle configurations, a switch strategy which employs a standard intake manifold and an assembly of pipes and throttle(s), are investigated numerically by using a one-dimensional engine simulation program based on the method of characteristics. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve rapid AFR switch without a torque jump, i.e. unperceptible to the driver.
Technical Paper

Fast Response NO/HC Measurements in the Cylinder and Exhaust Port of a DI Diesel Engine

A novel Fast Response Chemiluminescence Detector and a Fast Flame Ionization detector have been used to examine the instantaneous NO and unburnt hydrocarbon concentration in the cylinder and exhaust port of a DI Diesel engine. The in-cylinder results indicate very high levels of NO in the premixed phase of combustion, followed by generally lower levels during the diffusion burning phase. Hydrocarbon signals also indicate significant detail. The in-cylinder uHC signal is consistent with the probe location being between two of the fuel sprays. Both in-cylinder and exhaust results indicate rather high cyclic variability in the NO levels at steady conditions. Variations in the timing and structure of the exhaust uHC signal during the valve open period with load may give insight into the fuel spray/air motion.
Technical Paper

The Fast FID as a Velocimeter for Flow Measurements in an Automotive Catalyst

The gas velocity through an automotive catalyst has been determined by measuring the time of flight of a pulse of propane injected at the inlet plane of the catalyst. The arrival time at the exit plane was detected by a fast flame ionization detector. By synchronizing and delaying the injection of propane with respect to the engine crankshaft position, the fluctuations of the exhaust gas velocity during the engine cycle were investigated. A number of tests at different engine load and speed points were carried out. The results show a complex velocity/time characteristic, including flow reversals. The technique is shown to be a viable option for flow measurement in this harsh environment.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of Intake Port Phenomena in a Spark Ignition Engine Under Cold Starting Conditions

The paper presents a computer simulation of flow and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. Engine cold starting conditions are studied including the effects of in-cylinder mixture back flow into the port. One dimensional air flow and wall fuel film flow models and a two dimensional fuel droplet flow model have been developed using a combination of finite difference approaches. As a result, predictions are obtained that provide detailed picture of the air-fuel mixture properties along the intake port. The model may be of special importance for exhaust gas ignition system simulation as it will provide data concerning mixture formation under conditions of excessive fuel injection during engine start-up. The calculations performed are shown to be phenomenologically correct.
Technical Paper

Real Time In-Cylinder and Exhaust NO Measurements in a Production SI Engine

A new fast response NO detector, based on the chemiluminescence (CLD) method has been used to measure continuous, real time levels of NO in the cylinder, and simultaneously in the exhaust port of a virtually unmodified production SI engine. The real time NO concentration data show a great deal of information. Simultaneous NO measurements taken in-cylinder at sample points a few millimetres apart show substantial differences. Exhaust and in-cylinder levels from the same cycle show even greater differences, though the levels on average are well correlated.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Transport in a Port Injected Engine

The transport of fuel during cold start in the intake of a port-injected engine has been investigated using a standard engine with very little modification. A fast response FID sampling from the intake manifold is used to measure the instantaneous vapor concentration during the start. At short times after the start, the engine is stopped, and the port under investigation isolated. The engine is then warmed up by passing hot water through it and at the same time is flushed with hot air, in the port and the cylinder. This evaporates the liquid fuel, and by integrating the vapor concentration multiplied by mass flow of the displaced gas, the fuel mass in the isolated port and cylinder is measured. It is shown how the mass of liquid in the port at the time at which the engine is stopped can reliably be related to the concentration measurement. By stopping the engine at different times after the start, detailed accounting of the fuel transport as a function of time since start can be made.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Phenomena in a Spark-Ignition Engine at Part Load

The flow and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially at part load. The backflow of the hot burned gas from the cylinder into the intake port when the intake valve is opened breaks up any liquid film around the inlet valve, influences gas and wall temperatures, and has a major effect on the fuel vaporization process. The backflow of in-cylinder mixture with its residual component during the compression stroke prior to inlet valve closing fills part of the port with gas at higher than fresh mixture temperature. To quantify these phenomena, time-resolved measurements of the hydrocarbon concentration profile along the center-line of the intake port were made with a fast-response flame ionization detector, and of the gas temperature with a fine wire resistance thermometer, in a single-cylinder engine running with premixed propane/air mixture.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Residual Gas Concentration in a Spark Ignition Engine

The residual gas fraction prior to ignition at the vicinity of the spark plug in a single cylinder, two-valve spark ignition engine was measured with a fast-response flame ionization hydrocarbon detector. The technique in using such an instrument is reported. The measurements were made as a function of the intake manifold pressure, engine speed and intake/exhaust valve-overlap duration. Both the mean level of the residual fraction and the statistics of the cycle-to-cycle variations were obtained.
Technical Paper

On the Time Delay in Continuous In-Cylinder Sampling From IC Engines

When gas sample is continuously drawn from the cylinder of an internal combustion engine, the sample that appears at the end of the sampling system corresponds to the in-cylinder content sometime ago because of the finite transit time which is a function of the cylinder pressure history. This variable delay causes a dispersion of the sample signal and makes the interpretation of the signal difficult An unsteady flow analysis of a typical sampling system was carried out for selected engine loads and speeds. For typical engine operation, a window in which the delay is approximately constant may be found. This window gets smaller with increase in engine speed, with decrease in load, and with the increase in exit pressure of the sampling system.
Technical Paper

Length Scale and Turbulence Intensity Measurements in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine

An advanced high speed hydraulic system consisting of a special ram and hardware digital controller is described with which a hot wire anemometer has been flown across the bore of a motored spark ignition engine. The only access to the engine was a single 3mm diameter hole and thus the engine modifications required for this measurement technique ate minimised. The velocity imposed by the ram system enabled the spatial turbulent structure to be measured with the advantage of an imposed ‘mean flow’, which makes confident analysis of the data possible. Using a novel learning procedure, the required hot wire trajectories can be followed with great accuracy and repeatability. Some results are presented from the engine as well as a simple method for reliable hot wire calibration.
Technical Paper

Origin of the Response of Electrostatic Particle Probes

This paper describes an examination of the origin of the response of a real-time exhaust particle sensor. The sensor works by detecting the net electrical charge carried by diesel exhaust particles emitted during exhaust blow-down. The distribution of charge on these particles has been measured using an electrical mobility analysis system. The results show that the exhaust particles are highly charged and that their charge distributions are nearly symmetrical. The sensor signal results from a slight departure from this symmetry. The results suggest that most of the charge on the exhaust particles results from bipolar charging by flame ions during combustion, but that the net charge detected by the sensor results from surface interactions which some of the larger particles undergo during exhaust blowdown.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Dynamic Similarity Modelling in Internal Combustion Engines

In the study of mixture motion in an I.C. engine it is desirable to observe the development of flow structures at reduced speed, in order to facilitate data capture. In this paper the use of high molecular weight gases to achieve dynamic similarity with real engine operating conditions at very much reduced engine speeds is examined. The general constraints required to achieve full similarity are discussed, as are the implications for the choice of gas mixtures. It is argued that acceptable similarity can be obtained using a common fluorocarbon, and gas flow motions can be tracked using conventional video equipment and large (20 μm) microballoon seeds.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection by Means of the Spark Plug

This paper describes a system for knock detection in automobile engines using the spark plug. Operation is based on detection of the effect of the characteristic pressure fluctuations in the cylinder on the conductivity of the slightly ionized combustion gases in the vicinity of the plug gap. A signal processing method is described which gives adequate signal to noise ratio up to high engine speed.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Smoke Sensor for Diesel Engines

This paper describes a system for real-time smoke detection in diesel engines. Preliminary results are presented from a very simple sensor which detects the net charge level on smoke particles. There appears to be a useful correlation between the peak charge level and the Bosch smoke number. The mechanism by which the particulates is discussed, though no firm conclusions are reached.
Technical Paper

A Fast Detailed-Chemistry Modelling Approach for Simulating the SI-HCCI Transition

An established Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion mode in a four-cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modeling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as using a pilot injection. A proven technique for tabulating the model is used to create look-up tables in both SI and HCCI modes. In HCCI mode several tables are required, including tables for the first NVO, transient valve timing NVO, transient valve timing HCCI and steady valve timing HCCI and NVO.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Unburnt Gas Temperature in an IC Engine by Means of a Pressure Transducer

A novel method of measuring cylinder gas temperature in an internal combustion engine cylinder is introduced. The physical basis for the technique is that the flow rate through an orifice is a function of the temperature of the gas flowing through the orifice. Using a pressure transducer in the cylinder, and another in a chamber connected to the cylinder via an orifice, it is shown how the cylinder temperature can be determined with useful sensitivity. In this paper the governing equations are derived, which show that the heat transfer characteristics of the chamber are critical to the performance of the system, and that isothermal or adiabatic conditions give the optimum performance. For a typical internal combustion engine, it is found that the pre-compression cylinder temperature is related to the chamber pressure late in the compression process with sensitivity of the order of 0.005 bar/K.
Technical Paper

Fast O2 Measurement using Modified UEGO Sensors in the Intake and Exhaust of a Diesel Engine

Recent work has investigated the use of O₂ concentration in the intake manifold as a control variable for diesel engines. It has been recognized as a very good indicator of NOX emissions especially during transient operation, however, much of the work is concentrated on estimating the O₂ concentration as opposed to measuring it. This work investigates Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen (UEGO) sensors and their potential to be used for such measurements. In previous work it was shown that these sensors can be operated in a controlled pressure environment such that their response time is of the order 10 ms. In this paper, it is shown how the key causes of variation (and therefore potential sources of error) in sensor output, namely, pressure and temperature are largely mitigated by operating the sensors in such an environment. Experiments were undertaken on a representative light-duty diesel engine using modified UEGO sensors in the intake and exhaust system.