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Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake Air Temperature, Compression Ratio and Coolant Temperature on the Start of Heat Release in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) Engine

2001-12-01
2001-01-1880
In this paper, effect of intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and compression ratio on start of heat release (SOHR) in HCCI engines is investigated. The operational range with HCCI operation was determined experimentally using a CFR (Cooperative Fuels Research) engine with n-butane as the fuel. In-cylinder pressure was processed to evaluate SOHR. The effect of intake air and coolant temperature on SOHR increases as engine speed increases. In order to gain more insight into the combustion phenomena, SOHR was calculated using the theory of Livengood-Wu and compared with the experimental data. Dependence of SOHR on the equivalence ratio shows good correspondence between experiment and calculation. On the contrary, dependence on the intake air temperature and compression ratio shows poorer correspondence with predictions, especially under low engine speed. We interpret this as an indication of the importance of the active intermediate species that remain in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in a Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0656
Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Detailed Chemical Composition and Particulate Size Distributions of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1794
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) and regulated gaseous emissions in a modern heavy-duty D.I. diesel engine. These measurements were made for two different diesel fuels: No. 2 diesel (Fuel A) and ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B). A single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system was used in the experiments. PM measurements were made with an enhanced full-dilution tunnel system at the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) [1, 2]. The engine was run under 2 selected modes (25% and 75% loads at 1200 rpm) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on Combustion and Detailed Chemical/Physical Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1899
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of fuel composition on combustion, gaseous emissions, and detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine with the use of the enhanced full-dilution tunnel system of the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the UW-Madison. Detailed description of this system can be found in our previous reports [1,2]. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system. The operating conditions of the engine followed the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle. The fuels used in the current study include baseline No. 2 diesel (Fuel A: sulfur content = 352 ppm), ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B: sulfur content = 14 ppm), and Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (sulfur content = 0 ppm).
Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Soot Modeling

2003-03-03
2003-01-1070
A zero-dimension model of spray development and particulate emissions for direct-injection combustion was developed. The model describes the major characteristics of the injection plume including: spray angle, liquid penetration, lift-off length, and temperatures of regions within the spray. The model also predicts particulate mass output over a span of combustion cycles, as well as a particulate mass-history over a single combustion event. The model was developed by applying established conceptual models for direct injection combustion to numerical relations, to develop a mathematical description of events. The model was developed in a Matlab Simulink environment to promote modularity and ease of use.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Limits of Improving DI Diesel Emissions By Increasing In-Cylinder Mixing

1998-10-19
982677
In the current investigation, the authors identified conditions under which increased in-cylinder turbulence can be used to improve diesel emissions. Two separate regimes of engine operation were identified; one in which combustion was constrained by mixing and one in which it was not. These regimes were dubbed under-mixed and over-mixed, respectively. It was found that increasing mixing in the former regime had a profound effect on soot emission. Fuel injection characteristics were found to be extremely important in determining the point at which mixing became inadequate. In addition, the ratio of the fuel injection momentum flux relative to that of the gas injection was found to be important in determining how increasing mixing would effect soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Soot Formation During DI Diesel Combustion Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Model

1998-10-19
982463
Predictive models of soot formation during Diesel combustion are of great practical interest, particularly in light of newly proposed strict regulations on particulate emissions. A modified version of the phenomenological model of soot formation developed previously has been implemented in KIVA-II CFD code. The model includes major generic processes involved in soot formation during combustion, i.e., formation of soot precursors, formation of surface growth species, soot particle nucleation, coagulation, surface growth and oxidation. The formulation of the model within the KIVA-II is fully coupled with the mass and energy balances in the system. The model performance has been tested by comparison with the results of optical in-cylinder soot measurements in a single cylinder Cummins NH Diesel engine. The predicted soot volume fraction, number density and particle size agree reasonably well with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Composition on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine: iso-Octane/Toluene and n-Octane/Toluene Fuel Mixtures

1998-10-19
982557
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fuel type and mixture composition on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a homogeneous charge spark ignition engine. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling indicated that at the temperatures of relevance for HC consumption in engines (T > 1500 K) a majority of the parent fuel decomposes by unimolecular thermal decomposition and that the radical pool which consumes the remaining smaller HC species is produced from the decomposition of the fuel. These results suggested that chemical kinetic interactions should exist between fuel components in a fuel mixture. Engine experiments were performed with iso-octane/toluene and n-octane/toluene fuel mixtures to determine whether kinetic interactions exist within an engine. Engine-out HC emissions exhibited a non-linear response to the amount of the paraffin in the fuel mixture and demonstrated that kinetic interactions do occur between fuel species.
Technical Paper

In Cylinder Augmented Mixing Through Controlled Gaseous Jet Injection

1995-10-01
952358
An investigation was performed on a direct injection diesel engine equipped with a gaseous injector to determine the effects of augmented mixing on emission characteristics. The gaseous injector introduced a jet of gas of particular composition in the cylinder during the latter portion of diesel combustion. This injector was controlled to inject the gas at specific engine timings and at various injection pressures. Engine experiments were done on a LABECO/TACOM single cylinder, direct injected, 1.2 liter, four stroke diesel engine. This engine was operated at 1500 rpm at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 with simulated turbocharging. The fuel injection timing was changed for some cases to accommodate the gaseous injection. Exhaust particulate emissions were measured with a mini-dilution tunnel. All other emissions data were measured on a REGA 7000 Real-Time Exhaust Gas Analyzer Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) system.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in Combustion and Mixture Concentration in the Vicinity of Spark Plug Gap

1995-02-01
950814
The correlations between IMEP and pressures at referenced crank angles have different trends for different equivalence ratios. A fiber optic spark plug was used to detect the initial flame development which was then used to analyze the combustion cyclic variation. Rayleigh scattering measurements were applied to detect the air-fuel mixture fluctuations in the vicinity of spark plug gap for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous mixture preparations in a spark ignition engine. The variation in mixture concentration in the vicinity of spark plug gap was not confirmed as a major contributor to cycle-by-cycle variation in combustion for any of the homogeneous mixture cases or for the stoichiometric and lean mixtures of port injection. However, a leaner mixture((ϕ=0.80) of port injection did correlate with the cyclic variation in combustion.
Technical Paper

Optical Measurements of Soot Particle Size, Number Density, and Temperature in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine as a Function of Speed and Load

1994-03-01
940270
In-cylinder measurements of soot particle size, number density, and temperature have been made using optical measurements in a direct injection diesel engine. The measurements were made at one location approximately 5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide above the bowl near the head. Two optical techniques were used simultaneously involving light scattering, extinction and radiation. An optical probe was designed and mounted in a modified exhaust valve which introduced a beam of light into the cylinder and collected the scattered and radiating light from the soot. The resulting measurements were semi-quantitative, giving an absolute uncertainty on the order of ± 50% which was attributed mainly to the uncertainty of the optical properties of the soot and the heterogeneous nature of the soot cloud. Measurements at three speeds and three overall equivalence ratios were made.
Technical Paper

Experimental Hydrocarbon Consumption Rate Correlations From a Spark Ignition Engine

1997-10-01
972888
The objective of this research was to develop a global correlation for hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a homogeneous charge spark ignition engine. Engine experiments were performed with a single-cylinder engine over a wide range of speed, load, spark timing and air/fuel ratios using both n-butane and iso-octane for fuels. A global HC consumption rate correlation was developed that was able to predict measured HC emissions from both fuels to within 15 percent over all operating conditions. The results imply that the majority of the HC consumption takes place in the bulk gas at temperatures higher than 1500 K, and that for part load, low speed operating conditions, the majority of the HC consumption takes place within the cylinder before the exhaust valve opens.
Technical Paper

The Interaction Between Nitric Oxide and Hydrocarbon Oxidation Chemistry in a Spark Ignition Engine

1997-10-01
972889
This research investigated the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a homogeneous charge spark ignition engine. Nitric oxide production inside the engine was eliminated by operating the engine on mixtures of n-butane/O2 and argon mixed from bottled gases in a custom-designed intake system. The effects of NO on HC emissions were studied by adding NO to the intake. No changes in HC emissions were measured with NO addition, although NO addition did promote autoignition chemistry. Experiments were also performed with nitrogen dilution to confirm that the argon results are applicable to normal engine operation. With nitrogen dilution there was again no effect of NO addition on HC emissions. The lack of a chemical effect of NO on HC emissions implies that a majority of the HC consumption occurs at temperatures higher than 1500 K.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962056
Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Aromatic Structure and Content on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Particulates

1992-02-01
920110
A single cylinder, Cummins NH, direct-injection, diesel engine has been operated in order to evaluate the effects of aromatic content and aromatic structure on diesel engine particulates. Results from three fuels are shown. The first fuel, a low sulfur Chevron diesel fuel was used as a base fuel for comparison. The other fuels consisted of the base fuel and 10% by volume of 1-2-3-4 tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) a single-ring aromatic and naphthalene, a double-ring aromatic. The fuels were chosen to vary aromatic content and structure while minimizing differences in boiling points and cetane number. Measurements included exhaust particulates using a mini-dilution tunnel, exhaust emissions including THC, CO2, NO/NOx, O2, injection timing, two-color radiation, soluble organic fraction, and cylinder pressure. Particulate measurements were found to be sensitive to temperature and flow conditions in the mini-dilution tunnel and exhaust system.
Technical Paper

Data from a Variable Rate Shape High Pressure Injection System Operating in an Engine Fed Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

1990-10-01
902082
In current systems, for a given nozzle and injection pressure (pump speed), the shape of the injection rate is fixed and the injection timing is the only variable the engine designer can vary. For this non-interactive injection system, changing the injector nozzle (number and diameter of holes) will proportionately change the injection shape. New injection systems in which the rate of injection is a controlled variable are being developed. Results from one such injector, called the UCORS (Universal Combustion Optimization and Rate Shaping), are reported in this paper. The system can dynamically control its injection rate shape by controlling the position and size of a pilot injection relative to the main injection. Data and analysis from an out-of-engine and combustion chamber study of the UCORS injection system are presented.
Technical Paper

Computations of a Two-Stroke Engine Cylinder and Port Scavenging Flows

1991-02-01
910672
A modification of the computational fluid dynamics code KIVA-II is presented that allows computations to be made in complex engine geometries. An example application is given in which three versions of KIVA-II are run simultaneously. Each version considers a separate block of the computational domain, and the blocks exchange boundary condition information with each other at their common interfaces. The use of separate blocks permits the connectedness of the overall computational domain to change with time. The scavenging flow in the cylinder, transfer pipes (ports), and exhaust pipe of a ported two-stroke engine with a moving piston was modeled in this way. Results are presented for three engine designs that differ only in the angle of their boost ports. The calculated flow fields and the resulting fuel distributions are shown to be markedly different with the different geometries.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Bosch and Zuech Rate of Injection Meters

1991-02-01
910724
This paper will discuss the fundamentals of the Bosch rate of injection meter which has been the standard measurement tool for the last 25 years and a newly developed tool which uses the Zuech constant volume technique. A fundamental and experimental comparison is presented. Using a high pressure accumulator type injector, each of the injection systems produced almost identical injection rate shapes. The integrated values of these traces (injection quantity) were within a few percent of the physically measured quantities.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Threshold Knock with a Semi-Empirical Model—Initial Results

1987-11-01
872149
In an effort to help explain knock performance in a variety of engines, a semi-empirical knock model has been developed. Making use of a “lumped-parameter” autoignition model and simple cylinder-pressure-driven thermodynamics, the model mimics the knock results obtained in an engine with a central-ignition chamber remarkably well. While additional testing against other engines is necessary to determine the generality of the model, it has already proven useful in explaining experimentally observed trends. The current work indicates that while heavy knock may occur at temperatures above 1000 K, independent of “cool-flame” chemistry, threshold knock is a 700-950 K phenomenon which can be influenced by “cool-flame” chemical activity.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Predictions and Experiments in a Motored Engine

1988-09-01
881314
In the first part of this study, a one-dimensional code was used to compare predictions from six different two-equation turbulence models. It is shown that the application of the traditional k-ε models to the viscous-dominated region of the boundary layer can produce errors in both the calculated heat flux and surface friction. A low-Reynolds-number model does not appear to predict similar non-physical effects. A new one-dimensional model, which includes the effect of compression, has been formulated by multiparameter fit to the numerical solution of the energy equation. This model can be used in place of the law-of-the-wall to calculate the surface heat flux. The experiments were performed in a specially-instrumented engine, allowing optical access to the clearance volume. Measurements of heat flux, swirl velocities, and momentum boundary layer thickness were made for different engine speeds.
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